Skip to main navigation menu Skip to main content Skip to site footer

Identifying the key factors of sustainable entrepreneurship in the Nigerian food industry: The role of media availability



Objective: The article’s objective is to identify how media could facilitate the effect of sustainable entrepreneurship on consumer purchase behaviour, based on evidence from the food industry in Nigeria.

Research Design & Methods: The research population was experts who have sufficient information, expertise, and experience in the field of sustainable entrepreneurship and marketing, and pay attention to online social platforms and consumer purchase behaviour. There population amounted to 33 interviewed experts. A combination of Delphi-ANP (Analytic Network Process) approaches was used. Results showed that customers’ satisfaction was the key dimension that affects sustainable entrepreneurship in the Nigerian food industry.

Findings: ‘Access to the internet’ had the highest rank (F15) (0.33741), which showed that it was the most important factor in developing sustainable entrepreneurship of food industry, regarding to media role in Nigeria. ‘production process and the environment’ (F1) (0.33461) ranked second and was close to the ‘price satisfaction’ (F17) (0.32049) in importance. In addition, managers should not ignore the ‘excellent functional quality of the brand,’ ‘personal attributes of customers’ care’ and ‘packaging quality,’ since these three factors were ranked fourth, fifth and sixth, respectively.

Implications & Recommendations: The entrepreneurs should focus more on this dimension to develop a sustainable food industry in Nigeria. Meanwhile, media availability had a significant role in developing sustainable entrepreneurship in Nigeria.

Contribution & Value Added: Most researchers focused on sustainable entrepreneurship without considering the impacts of media as a channel of achieving it by changing the consumers’ behaviours towards consuming a particular product. Therefore, this research -investigated how media could moderate the effect of sustainable entrepreneurship on consumer purchase behaviour, taking evidence from the food industry in Nigeria.



Sustainable entrepreneurship, Media availability, Delphi approach, Analytic network process, Food industry

(PDF) Save

Author Biography

Barnabas Nuhu Yakubu

Lecturer and PhD Candidate in MATE University (Hungary). Master of Science in Rural Development and Agribusiness from Szent Istvan University (Hungary). He is winner of Farewell Speech Contest. Tempus Public Foundation, Hungary (2017). His research interests are sustainable urban environment, housing and urban environment, migration gender disparity and rural environment, infrastructures and the cities.

Aidin Salamzadeh

Assistant professor at the Faculty of Management, University of Tehran. He has several publications in international journals and participated in several conferences in some countries. His main areas of interest are: social entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial universities, and entrepreneurship policy making. He serves as the editor in chief of the Journal of Entrepreneurship, Business and Economics (Canada), and as a member of the editorial board in some journals such as JWE, and IE (Serbia), JEIM (Turkey), IJMP (Brazil), etc. He is also a member of the European SPES Forum, and the Asian Academy of Management

Parisa Bouzari

Researcher in managerial studies, especially supply chain management and Digital marketing. She is one of authors of book chapter with title of “The interaction between humans and media in the future of the banking industry” in the Book of “Contemporary Applications of the Actor Network Theory”. Palgrave McMillan (A part of Springer Nature) . She is expert in data collection and survey questionnaire as well. Meanwhile, she has papers related to women entrepreneurship and internal branding.

Pejman Ebrahimi

Lecturer and PhD Candidate in MATE University (Hungary), moreover he is educator and expert in statistical analysis ( Programming with Python/ Machine learning by jupyter / Data science / Statistical analysis with Amos Graphic / SPSS / SmartPLS 3/ Econometrics with Eviews and STATA / EQS / SAS / R / R Studio / Nvivo / Minitab / Meta analysis with CMA 2 and STATA/ DEA with MATLAB/ DEMATEL with MATLAB/ ANN with MATLAB/ IBM SPSS Modeler/ Future study with Cross Impact Analysis and MICMAC software/ ANN with super decision/ AHP with expert choice/ Grounded theory with Atlas ti) and microeconomics as his main areas of interest. His interests include green entrepreneurship, green innovation, SMEs performance, social media marketing, social networks marketing and financial performance.

Maria Fekete-Farkas

Full Professor at the Faculty of Economics and Social Sciences, MATE University (Hungary). She is supervisor and secretary of English language program for the Doctoral School of Economic and Regional Sciences, Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences (MATE). Her research areas are sustainable development, Industry 4.0, new market structures and pricing, economics of natural resources, economic, social and environment aspects of climate change, land use and renewable energy. She is a member of the organizing committees of several international conferences, and serves certain international journals as a member of the editorial board, reviewer and author.


  1. Anderson, A., Loomba, P., Orajaka, I., Numfor, J., Saha, S., Janko, S., Johanson, N., Podmore, R., & Larsen, R. (2017). Empowering smart communities: Electrification, education, and sustainable entrepreneurship in IEEE smart village initiatives. IEEE Electrification Magazine, 5(2), 6-16.
  2. Androniceanu, A. & Georgescu, I. (2022). E-participation in Europe: a comparative perspective. Public Administration Issues, 5, Special Issue I, 7-29.
  3. Androniceanu, A. (2020). Major structural changes in the EU policies due to the problems and risks caused by COVID-19. Administratie si Management Public, 34, 137-149.
  4. Baldesku, E., & Ilysheva, N. (2022). System of Interrelated Indicators of Sustainable Development for Indigenous Peoples of Khmao-Yugra. Media Dialogues / Medijski dijalozi, 15(2), 71-82.
  5. Baporikar, N., & Fotolela, R. (2020). Socio-Cultural Facets for Sustainable Entrepreneurship Development. International Journal of Sustainable Economies Management, 9(4), 46-68.
  6. Bei, L. T., & Chiao, Y. C. (2006). The determinants of customer loyalty: an analysis of intangible factors in three service industries. International Journal of Commerce and Management, 16(3/4), 162-177.
  7. Belwal, R., & Amireh, M. (2018). Service quality and attitudinal loyalty: Consumers’ perception of two major telecommunication companies in Oman. Arab economic and business journal, 13(2), 197-208.
  8. Bouzari, P., Salamzadeh, A., Soleimani, M., & Ebrahimi, P. (2021). Online Social Networks and Women’s Entrepreneurship: A Comparative Study between Iran and Hungary. Journal of Women’s Entrepreneurship and Education, (3/4), 61-75.
  9. Brooks, K. W. (1979). Delphi technique: Expanding applications. North Central Association Quarterly, 53(3), 377-385.
  10. Chang, A. Y., Hu, K. J., & Hong, Y. L. (2013). An ISM-ANP approach to identifying key agile factors in launching a new product into mass production. International Journal of Production Research, 51(2), 582-597.
  11. Chigozirim, O. N., Okore, N. P., Ukeh, O. O., & Mba, A. N. (2021). Dynamics of Food Price Volatility and Households’ Welfare in Nigeria. AGRIS on-line Papers in Economics and Informatics, 13(4), 49-60.
  12. Chitty, B., Ward, S., & Chua, C. (2007). An application of the ECSI model as a predictor of satisfaction and loyalty for backpacker hostels. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 25(6), 563-580.
  13. Chukwu, G. C., Ngirika, D., & Miyene, C. T. (2021). Sustainable Entrepreneurship Education (SEE): A Panacea for Managing Family Business in South-South, Nigeria. Nigerian Academy of Management Journal, 16(2), 7-24.
  14. Cong Doanh, D., Gadomska-Lila, K., & Thi Loan, L. (2021). Antecedents of green purchase intention: a cross-cultural empirical evidence from Vietnam and Poland. Oeconomia Copernicana, 12(4), 935-971.
  15. Crecente, F., Sarabia, M., & del Val, M. T. (2021). Sustainable entrepreneurship in the 2030 horizon. Sustainability, 13(2), 909.
  16. Davidson, N., Mariev, O., & Turkanova, S. (2021). Does income inequality matter for CO2 emissions in Russian regions?. Equilibrium. Quarterly Journal of Economics and Economic Policy, 16(3), 533-551.
  17. Delibasic, M. (2022). Environment of Dependent and Apologetic Media in the See Countries. Media Dialogues / Medijski dijalozi, 15(1), 7-20.
  18. Ebrahimi, P., Alipour, H., Gholampour, A., & Ahmadi, M. (2019). Social Networks, Exchange Rate Fluctuation, and Economic Growth: ARDL Approach. Tékhne-Review of Applied Management Studies, 17(1), 1-9.
  19. Ebrahimi, P., Kot, S., & Fekete-Farkas, M. (2020). Platform Entrepreneurship: An Interpretative Structural Modeling. Nordic Journal of Media Management, 1(3), 385-400.
  20. Ellison, N. B., Steinfield, C., & Lampe, C. (2007). The benefits of Facebook “friends:” Social capital and college students’ use of online social network sites. Journal of computer‐mediated communication, 12(4), 1143-1168.
  21. Falkowl, S. (2010). Social Media Strategy: A white paper on social media strategy. Retreived from: doi: on November 11, 2021.
  22. Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Water Resources (2010). Finding ways to guarantee food security in Nigeria: The Punch, March 14, 17(1057).
  23. Florek-Paszkowska, A., Ujwary-Gil, A., & Godlewska-Dzioboń, B. (2021). Business innovation and critical suc-cess factors in the era of digital transformation and turbulent times. Journal of Entrepreneurship, Man-agement, and Innovation, 17(4), 7-28.
  24. Fotis, J. N. (2015). The Use of social media and its impacts on consumer behaviour: the context of holiday travel. Doctorate Thesis (Doctorate). Bournemouth University.
  25. Giessen, H. W. (2015). Sustainable entrepreneurship and peculiarities of media-based learning. Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues, 2(3), 154.
  26. Gregori, P., & Holzmann, P. (2020). Digital sustainable entrepreneurship: A business model perspective on embedding digital technologies for social and environmental value creation. Journal of Cleaner Production, 272, 1-9.
  27. Hahn, R., Spieth, P., & Ince, I. (2018). Business model design in sustainable entrepreneurship: Illuminating the commercial logic of hybrid businesses. Journal of Cleaner Production, 176, 439-451.
  28. Hennig-Thurau, T., Gwinner, K. P., Walsh, G., & Gremler, D. D. (2004). Electronic word-of-mouth via consumer-opinion platforms: what motivates consumers to articulate themselves on the Internet? Journal of interactive marketing, 18(1), 38-52.
  29. Henriques, A., & Richardson, J. (2013). The triple bottom line: Does it all add up: London: Routledge.
  30. Herhausen, D., Kleinlercher, K., Verhoef, P. C., Emrich, O., & Rudolph, T. (2019). Loyalty formation for different customer journey segments. Journal of Retailing, 95(3), 9-29.
  31. Himel, T. H., Muniandy, S., & Rahman, A. (2016). The relationship between selfefficacy, feasibility and awareness towards green entrepreneurial intention. Sci. Int.(Lahore), 28(2), 2095-2103.
  32. Hussain, I., Nazir, M., Hashmi, S. B., Shaheen, I., Akram, S., Waseem, M. A., & Arshad, A. (2021). Linking green and sustainable entrepreneurial intentions and social networking sites; the mediating role of self-efficacy and risk propensity. Sustainability, 13(13), 7050.
  33. Ibe R., Rahji, M., Adeoti, A., & Adenegan, K. (2020). Household Demand for Fruits and Vegetables in Rural and Urban South-Western Nigeria. AGRIS on-line Papers in Economics and Informatics, 12(3), 1804-1930.
  34. Ibidunni, A. S., Ufua, D. E., & Opute, A. P. (2021). Linking disruptive innovation to sustainable entrepreneurship within the context of small and medium firms: a focus on Nigeria. African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development, 1-17.
  35. Ismail, A. R. (2017). The influence of perceived social media marketing activities on brand loyalty: The mediation effect of brand and value consciousness. Asia pacific journal of marketing and logistics, 29(1), 129-144.
  36. Ismail’Kayode, O., Muyideen, A. A., & Al-Furqan, D. M. (2016). Sustainable Entrepreneurship and Customer Loyalty in the Fast Food Industry in Nigeria. Journal of Business, 4(4), 93-97.
  37. Ivanov, V., Shevchenko, O., Marynin, A., Stabnikov, V., Gubenia, O., Stabnikova, O., Shevchenko, A., Gavva, O. & Saliuk, A. (2021). Trends and expected benefits of the breaking edge food technologies in 2021-2030. Ukrainian Food Journal, 10(1), 7-36.
  38. Jaki, A., & Siuta-Tokarska, B. (2019). New imperative of corporate value creation in face of the challenges of sustainable development. Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, 7(2), 63-81.
  39. Janavi, E., Soleimani, M., Gholampour, A., Friedrichsen, M., & Ebrahimi, P. (2021). Effect of Social Media Adoption and Media Needs on Online Purchase Behavior: The Moderator Roles of Media Type, Gender, Age. Journal of Information Technology Management, 13(2), 1-24.
  40. Kamble, S. S., & Raut, R. D. (2019). Evaluating the factors considered for procurement of raw material in food supply chain using Delphi-AHP methodology-a case study of potato chips processing company in India. International Journal of Productivity and Quality Management, 26(2), 176-189.
  41. Kaplan, A. M., & Haenlein, M. (2010). Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media. Business horizons, 53(1), 59-68.
  42. Kohli, C., Suri, R., & Kapoor, A. (2015). Will social media kill branding? Business Horizons, 58, 35-44.
  43. Kotler, P., Armstrang, G., & Cunningham, M. H. (2012). Principles of marketing. Hoboken: Pearson Prentice Hall.
  44. Lin, Z.L., & Ayegba, J.O. (2020). Mediating factors influencing the capacities of enterprise network performance. International Entrepreneurship Review, 6(3), 7-19.
  45. Matin, A., Zare, S., Ghotbi-Ravandi, M., & Jahani, Y. (2020). Prioritizing and weighting determinants of workers’ heat stress control using an analytical network process (ANP) a field study. Urban Climate, 31, 100587.
  46. Matzembacher, D. E., Raudsaar, M., Barcellos, M. D. D., & Mets, T. (2020). Business Models’ Innovations to Overcome Hybridity-Related Tensions in Sustainable Entrepreneurship. Sustainability, 12(11), 4503.
  47. Matuszewska-Pierzynka, A. (2021). Relationship between corporate sustainability performance and corporate financial performance: evidence from U.S. companies. Equilibrium. Quarterly Journal of Economics and Economic Policy, 16(4), 885-906.
  48. Mazurek, G., Korzyński, P., & Górska, A. (2019). Social Media in the Marketing of Higher Education Institutions in Poland: Preliminary Empirical Studies. Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, 7(1), 117-133.
  49. Mehta, N., Verma, P., Seth, N., & Shrivastava, N. (2014). Identification of TQM criterions for engineering education using Delphi technique. International Journal of Intelligent Enterprise, 2(4), 325-352.
  50. Meyer, N., Krüger, N (2021). South African female entrepreneurs’ motivational factors: Differences between young and established businesses owners. Forum Scientiae Oeconomia, 9(1), 75-90.
  51. Mnerie, D., Gaceu, L., Gubenia, O., Shamtsyan, M. & Birca, A. (2014). Critical analysis of the reflection by the resources quality agro-livestock in the labeling of generated foofstuff. 43rd International Symposium on Agricultural Engineering. Actual Tasks on Agricultural Engineering, 43, 879-884.
  52. Moghadamzadeh, A., Ebrahimi, P., Radfard, S., Salamzadeh, A., & Khajeheian, D. (2020). Investigating the role of customer co-creation behavior on social media platforms in rendering innovative services. Sustainability, 12(17), 6926.
  53. Moya‐Clemente, I., Ribes‐Giner, G., & Pantoja‐Díaz, O. (2020). Configurations of sustainable development goals that promote sustainable entrepreneurship over time. Sustainable Development, 28(4), 572-584.
  54. Musova, Z., Musa, H., & Matiova, V. (2021). Environmentally responsible behaviour of consumers: Evidence from Slovakia. Economics and Sociology, 14(1), 178-198. doi:10.14254/2071-789X.2021/14-1/12
  55. Ogori, A., & Joeguluba, O. (2015). Food processing and agro-business productivity challenge: The case of watermelon in Nigeria. World Wide Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Development, 1(1), 1-5.
  56. Onete, C. B., Dina, R., & Vlad, D. E. (2013). Social media in the development of sustainable business. Amfiteatru Economic Journal, 15(Special 7), 659-670.
  57. World Health Organization & Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (‎2019)‎. Global situation of pesticide management in agriculture and public health: report of a 2018 WHO-FAO survey. Genewa: World Health Organization.
  58. Owoade, O. A. (2017). Agropreneur development: A framework for sustainable food security and rural livelihood. IIARD International Journal of Economics and Business Management, 3(3), 53-62.
  59. Pilelienė, L., & Tamulienė, V. (2021). Consumer attitudes and behavior towards organic products: Evidence from the Lithuanian market. Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Innovation, 17(1), 269-299.
  60. Raimi, L., Shokunbi, M., & Peluola, S. (2010). Entrepreneurship and Development Institutions in Nigeria: Prospects and Challenges. In K. Subair (ed.), Perspectives of Entrepreneurship and Economic Development in Nigeria. Lagos: Olad Publishers Nigeria Limited.
  61. Richterová, E., Richter, M., & Sojková, Z. (2021). Regional eco-efficiency of the agricultural sector in V4 regions, its dynamics in time and decomposition on the technological and pure technical eco-efficiency change. Equilibrium. Quarterly Journal of Economics and Economic Policy, 16(3), 553-576.
  62. Russell, R. S., & Taylor, B. W. (2019). Operations and supply chain management: Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.
  63. Saaty, T. L. (1996). Decision making with dependence and feedback: The analytic network process (Vol. 4922). Pittsburgh: RWS publications Pittsburgh.
  64. Saaty, T.L. (1980). The analytic hierarchy process. New York: McGraw-Hill Company.
  65. Salamzadeh, A., Ebrahimi, P., Soleimani, M., & Fekete-Farkas, M. (2021). An AHP Approach to Identify the Barriers of Sustainable Geotourism Development in Iran: an Economic View. Geoheritage, 13(3), 1-11.
  66. Sargani, G. R., Zhou, D., Raza, M. H., & Wei, Y. (2020). Sustainable entrepreneurship in the agriculture sector: The nexus of the triple bottom line measurement approach. Sustainability, 12(8), 3275.
  67. Schreinemachers, P., & Tipraqsa, P. (2012). Agricultural pesticides and land use intensification in high, middle and low income countries. Food policy, 37(6), 616-626.
  68. Schultz, F., Utz, S., & Göritz, A. (2011). Is the medium the message? Perceptions of and reactions to crisis communication via twitter, blogs and traditional media. Public relations review, 37(1), 20-27.
  69. Shpak, N., Melnyk, O., Horbal, N., Ruda, M., Sroka, W. (2021). Assessing the implementation of the circular economy in the EU countries. Forum Scientiae Oeconomia, 9(1), 26-39.
  70. Shukla, P. (2004). Effect of product usage, satisfaction and involvement on brand switching behaviour. Asia pacific journal of marketing and logistics, 16(4), 82-104. doi:
  71. Skvarciany, V., Lapinskaite, I., & Volskyte, G. (2021). Circular economy as assistance for sustainable development in OECD countries. Oeconomia Copernicana, 12(1), 11-34.
  72. Stanek-Kowalczyk, A. (2021). Sustainable development start-ups as a new category of enterprises in Poland. International Entrepreneurship Review, 7(2), 67-83.
  73. Strange, T., & Bayley, A. (2008). Sustainable development: Linking economy. Society, environment, 141. Paris: OECD.
  74. Streimikiene, D., & Ahmed, R. R. (2021). The integration of corporate social responsibility and marketing concepts as a business strategy: evidence from SEM-based multivariate and Toda-Yamamoto causality models. Oeconomia Copernicana, 12(1), 125-157.
  75. Tiba, S., van Rijnsoever, F. J., & Hekkert, M. P. (2021). Sustainability startups and where to find them: Investigating the share of sustainability startups across entrepreneurial ecosystems and the causal drivers of differences. Journal of Cleaner Production, 306, 127054.
  76. Vafaei, A., & Farkas, M. (2015). Short communication: The effect of social media on customer behaviour. Paper presented at the 5th International Conference on Management, Gödöllő, Hungary, 533-536.
  77. Valbuena, D., Cely-Santos, M., & Obregón, D. (2021). Agrochemical pesticide production, trade, and hazard: Narrowing the information gap in Colombia. Journal of Environmental Management, 286, 112141.
  78. Verdugo, G. B., & Villarroel, A. V. (2021). Measuring the association between students’ exposure to social media and their valuation of sustainability in entrepreneurship. Heliyon, 7(6), e07272.
  79. Yeasmin, N. (2016). The determinants of sustainable entrepreneurship of immigrants in Lapland: An analysis of theoretical factors. Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, 4(1), 129-159.
  80. Zhuang, W., Luo, X., & Riaz, M. U. (2021). On the Factors Influencing Green Purchase Intention: A Meta-Analysis Approach. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 1074.


Download data is not yet available.