Skip to main navigation menu Skip to main content Skip to site footer

Work-life Balance Decision-making of Norwegian Students: Implications for Human Resources Management



Objective: The paper aims at identifying and assessing the significance of work-life balance determinants between the Youth of highly developed societies and its implications for human resources management on the example of Norway.

Research Design & Methods: The research target group consists of 236 respondents recruited among Norwegian tertiary education students. It employed literature analysis, two-stage exploratory research: direct individual in-depth interviews, survey based on a self-administered, web-based questionnaire with single-answer, limited choice qualitative & quantitative, as well as explanatory research (informal moderated group discussions).

Findings: The research on perceptions of determinants of quality of life and attractiveness of life strategies shows that in a country with relatively high socio-economic development level, such as Norway, differences in rankings do exist. They can be observed in relevance to both material and non-material QoL determinants.

Implications & Recommendations: The study revealed a need for deeper research on individually driven early decision-making of future employees and entrepreneurs. This will result in closer modelling of socio-economic phenomena, including more accurate adaptation to trends on the labour market and creation of new business models

Contribution & Value Added: Research value added comes from the comparison of perceptions of quality of life determinants between countries at various stages of socio-economic development and its implications for human resource management.


determinants of quality of life, work-life balance, qualitative-quantitative research, human resources, decision-making,


Author Biography

Remigiusz Gawlik

Associate Professor at Cracow University of Economics (Poland), Faculty of Economics and International Relations, International Economics Department. PhD in Economics at Cracow University of Economics (Poland). Alumnus of the College of Europe (Belgium & Poland). Certified Gestalt Counsellor and consultant in business communication. His scientific interests include modelling of decision-making processes in various fields of management.

Correspondence to: Assoc. Prof. Remigiusz Gawlik, PhD., Cracow University of Economics, Faculty of Economics and International Relations, International Economics Department, ul. Rakowicka 27, 31-510 Kraków, Poland,

Gorm Jacobsen

Associate Professor at the University of Agder (Norway), Faculty of Economics and Social Sciences, Department of Working Life and Innovation. Bachelor in Business Administration from the University of Lund (Sweden), Master Economics from the University of Oslo (Norway). His scientific interests include transformation from centrally planned economy to market economy and its implications.

Correspondence to: Assoc. Prof. Gorm Jacobsen, PhD, University of Agder, Department of Working Life and Innovation, F158, Jon Lilletunsvei 9, 4879 Grimstad, Norway,


  1. Abel-Smith, B., & Townsend, P. (1965). The poor and the poorest. Occasional Papers on Social Administration, 17.
  2. Adame, C., Caplliure, E-M., & Miquel, M-J. (2016). Work-life balance and firms: A matter of wom-en? Journal of Business Research, 69(4), 1379-1383. doi: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2015.10.111
  3. Alfes, K., Shantz, A.D., Truss, C., & Soane, E.C. (2013). The link between perceived human resource management practices, engagement and employee behaviour: a moderated mediation model. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 24(2), 330-351.
  4. Alkire, S., & Foster, J. (2011). Counting and multidimensional poverty measurement. Journal of Public Economics, 95, 476-487.
  5. Anand, P., Krishnakumar, J., & Tran, N.B. (2011). Measuring welfare: Latent variable models for happiness and capabilities in the presence of unobservable heterogeneity. Journal of Public Economics, 95, 205-215.
  6. Ansoff, H.I. (1975). Managing strategic surprise by response to weak signals. Californian Manage-ment Review, 18(2), 21-33.
  7. Atkinson, A.B. (1983). The Economics of Inequality. 2nd edition. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  8. Atkinson, A.B. (2003). Multidimensional deprivation: contrasting social welfare and counting ap-proaches. Journal of Economic Inequality, 1, 51-65.
  9. Baron, J.N., Jennings, P.D., & Dobbin, F.T. (1988). Mission control? The development of personnel systems in U.S. industry. American Sociological Review, 53, 497-514.
  10. Boreham, P., Povey, J., & Tomaszewski, W. (2016). Work and social well-being: the impact of em-ployment conditions on quality of life. The International Journal of Human Resource Manage-ment, 27(6), 593-611.
  11. Chang, J., Travaglione, A., & O’Neill, G. (2015). How can gender signal employee qualities in retail-ing? Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 27, 24-30, doi: 10.1016/j.jretconser.2015.07.004
  12. Gawlik, R. (2013). Material and non-material determinants of European youth’s life quality. In N. Delener, L. Fuxman, F.V. Lu, S. Rodrigues & L.E. Rivera (Eds.), Globalizing Businesses for the Next Century: Visualizing and Developing Contemporary Approaches to Harness Future Oppor-tunities (pp. 339-346). New York, NY: Global Business and Technology Association.
  13. Gawlik, R. (2014). Zastosowanie metody Analitycznego Procesu Sieciowego do wspierania racjonalnych wyborów młodych Europejczyków. Prace Naukowe Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego we Wrocławiu: Nowe kierunki w zarządzaniu przedsiębiorstwem – wiodące orientacje, 340, 415-426.
  14. Gawlik, R. (2015). Zmiany parametrów jakości życia Młodych Europejczyków – implikacje dla przedsiębiorstw. In E. Małuszyńska, G. Mazur & P. Idczak (red.), Unia Europejska wobec wyzwań przyszłości, Aspekty społeczne, gospodarcze i środowiskowe (pp. 13-22). Poznań: Wyd. Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego w Poznaniu.
  15. Gawlik, R., Titarenko, R., & Titov, S. (2015). Perception of Quality of Life and Its Components between Russian Students and Its Implications for University Lecturers. Horyzonty Polityki: Polityka publiczna, 6(16), 127-150.
  16. Ginevičius, R., Gedvilaitė, D., & Bruzgė, Š. (2015). Assessment of a Country’s Regional Economic Development on the Basis of Estimation of a Single Process (ESP) Method. Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, 3(2), 141-153.
  17. Gries, T., & Naudé, W. (2011). Entrepreneurship and human development: A capability approach. Journal of Public Economics, 95, 216-224.
  18. Holopainen, M., & Toivonen, M. (2012). Weak signals: Ansoff today. Futures, 44, 198-205. doi: 10.1016/j.futures.2011.10.002
  19. Huselid, M.A., Jackson S.E., & Schuler, R.S. (1997). Technical and strategic human resource man-agement effectiveness as determinants of firm performance. The Academy of Management Journal, 40(1), 171-188.
  20. Jackson S.E., Schuler, R.S., & Jiang, K. (2014). An aspirational framework for strategic human resource management. The Academy of Management Annals, 8(1), 1-56.
  21. Jungeilges, J., & Theisen, T. (2008). A comparative study of equity judgements in Lithuania and Norway. Journal of Socio-Economics, 37, 1090-1118.
  22. Kehoe, R.R., & Wright, P.R. (2013). The Impact of High-Performance Human Resource Practices on Employees’ Attitudes and Behaviors. Journal of Management, 39(2), 366-391.
  23. Khan, H. (1990). Measurement and Determinants of Socioeconomic Development: A Critical Con-spectus. Social Indicators Research, 24(2), 153-175.
  24. Kirk, S. (2016). Career capital in global Kaleidoscope Careers: the role of HRM. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 27(6), 681-697.
  25. Layard, R. (2005). Happiness: Lessons from a New Science. New York, NY: Penguin Press.
  26. Legatum Institute (2015). Legatum Prosperity Index. Legatum Institute. Retrieved on May 17, 2016 from
  27. Lub, X.D., Bal, P.M., Blomme, R.J., & Schalk, R. (2016). One job, one deal… or not: do generations respond differently to psychological contract fulfilment? The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 27(6), 653-680. doi: 10.1080/09585192.2015.1035304
  28. Maslow, A. (1954). Motivation and Personality. New York, NY: Harper.
  29. Neumark, D., & Muz, J. (2016). The “Business Climate” and Economic Inequality. Review of Income and Wealth, 62(1), 161-180. doi: 10.1111/roiw.12146
  30. Parakandi, M., & Behery, M. (2016). Sustainable human resources: Examining the status of organizational work-life balance practices in the United Arab Emirates. Renewable & Sustainable
  31. Energy Reviews, 55, 1370-1379. doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2015.07.095
  32. Perls, F. (1942). Ego, hunger and aggression. Durban: Knox Publishing.
  33. Perls, F., Hefferline, R., & Goodman, P. (1951). Gestalt therapy: excitement and growth in the human personality. New York, NY: Julian Press.
  34. Perls, F. (1969). Gestalt therapy verbatim. Lafayette, CA: Real People Press.
  35. Pocztowski, A. (2008). Zarządzanie zasobami ludzkimi: strategie, procesy, metody. Warszawa: Polskie Wydawnictwo Ekonomiczne.
  36. Presbitero, A., Roxas, B., & Chadee, D. (2016). Looking beyond HRM practices in enhancing employee retention in BPOs: focus on employee-organisation value fit. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 27(6), 635-652.
  37. Ren, X., & Caudle, D. (2016). Walking the tightrope between work and non-work life: strategies employed by British and Chinese academics and their implications. Studies in Higher Education, 41(4), 599-618. doi: 10.1080/03075079.2014.942277
  38. Reporters Without Borders (2015). Press Freedom Index. Reporters Without Borders. Retrieved on May 17, 2016 from
  39. Russo, M., Shteigman, A., & Carmeli, A. (2016). Workplace and family support and work-life bal-ance: Implications for individual psychological availability and energy at work. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 11(2), 173-188. doi: 10.1080/17439760.2015.1025424
  40. Schuessler, K.F., & Fisher, G.A. (1985). Quality of Life Research and Sociology. Annual Review of Sociology, 11, 129-149. doi: 10.1146/
  41. Sen, A.K. (1979). Personal utilities and public judgements: or what's wrong with welfare economics? Economic Journal, 89(355), 537-558.
  42. Sen, A.K. (1985). Commodities and capabilities. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  43. Sen, A.K. (1992). Inequality Reexamined. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  44. Sen, A.K. (1993). Capability and wellbeing. In M. Nussbaum & A.K. Sen (Eds.), The Quality of Life (pp. 30-53). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  45. Sen, A.K. (1999). Development as freedom. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  46. Simkins, T.J., & Peterson, M. (2016). Assessing the Value of a Societal-Level Sustainability Index for Macromarketing Research. Journal of Macromarketing, 36(1), 78-95.
  47. Smith, A. (1759). The theory of moral sentiments. Strand & Edinburgh: A. Millar, A. Kincaid & J. Bell.
  48. Stec, M., Filip, P., Grzebyk, M., & Pierscieniak, A. (2014). Socio-Economic Development in the EU Member States – Concept and Classification. Inzinerine Ekonomika-Engineering Economics, 25(5), 504-512. doi: 10.5755/
  49. Stiglitz, J., Sen, A., & Fitoussi, J-P. (Eds.) (2009). Report by the Commission on the Measurement of Economic Performance and Social Progress. Paris: Commission on the Measurement of Eco-nomic Performance and Social Progress.
  50. Şerban-Oprescu, G. (2012). Economic Approaches to Sustainability and Quality of Life. An Epistemo-logical Study. The Romanian Economic Journal, 46 bis, 79-96.
  51. Tang, Y., & Hornung, S. (2015). Work-family enrichment through I-Deals: evidence from Chinese employees. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 30(8), 940-954.
  52. Tolbert, P.S., & Zucker, L.G. (1983). Institutional sources of change in organizational structure: The diffusion of civil service reform. Administrative Science Quarterly, 23, 22-39.
  53. Ulman, P., & Šoltés, E. (2015). The monetary and non-monetary aspects of poverty in Poland and Slovakia. Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, 3(1), 61-73.
  54. UNDP (2015). Human Development Report. United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved on May 17, 2016 from statistical_annex.pdf
  55. Urbaniec, M. (2015). Sustainable Development Indicators in Poland: Measurement and System Evaluation. Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, 3(1), 119-134.
  56. Uysal, M., Sirgy, M.J., Woo, E., & Kim, H. (2016). Quality of life (QoL) and well-being research in tourism. Tourism Management, 53, 244-261. doi: 10.1016/j.tourman.2015.07.013
  57. World Bank (2015). World Development Indicators Database. World Bank. Retrieved on May 17, 2016 from
  58. value_2014+wbapi_data_value+wbapi_data_value-last&sort=desc
  59. Zheng, C., Kashi, K., Fan, D., Molineux, J., & Shan Ee, M. (2016). Impact of individual coping strate-gies and organisational work-life balance programmes on Australian employee well-being. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 27(5), 501-526.
  60. Żur, A. (2015). Social Problems as Sources of Opportunity: Antecedents of Social Entrepreneurship Opportunities. Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, 3(4), 73-87.


Download data is not yet available.