Measuring Entrepreneurial Orientation in the Social Context
Objective: The objective of this paper is to identify differences between measurement of organisational entrepreneurship in for-profit and non-profit context and to propose the measures aligned to non-profit organisations. The main research question is whether the scales designed to measure entrepreneurial orientation can be used in non-profit organisations and under which conditions.
Research, Design & Methods: Research methodology is based on review of research tools and measurement scales related to organisational entrepreneurship and comparison of for-profit and non-profit organisations, as well as their characteristics in the context of entrepreneurial orientation.
Findings: Entrepreneurial orientation can be measured in non-profit organisations using existing scales that have been designed for business organisations, however they have to be modified, mostly in the dimension of competitive aggressiveness and autonomy. Additionally, the scale should be enriched with items related to cooperation with other organisations.
Implications & Recommendations: It is necessary to develop methods and tools that enable the measurement of entrepreneurial orientation in non-profit organisation as well as comparative research on entrepreneurial orientation in for-profit and non-profit organisations.
Contribution & Value Added: The originality of this work lies in studying some aspects of entrepreneurial orientation, that apply to the social context. Some suggestions were formulated relating to the utilisation of entrepreneurial orientation scales (originally designed for business enterprises) in non-profit organisations.
social entrepreneurship; entrepreneurial orientation; autonomy; inter-organisational cooperation
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