Motivation Factors for Female Entrepreneurship in Mexico
Objective: The objective of this paper is to analyse motivation factors for female entrepreneurship in Mexico. In the proposed article, the authors discuss the factors which compelled women to start their enterprises in Mexico.
Research Design & Methods: Based on in-depth interviews with female entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship experts, the authors show which factors motivated women to start their own business in Mexico.
Findings: The study proves that women in Mexico are motivated by a combination of push and pull factors, where the majority of the factors are pull factors. The findings of the study help to conclude that female entrepreneurship development is influenced by different factors including the entrepreneurs’ personal traits, social and economic factors. Due to their conservative traditional attitude, risk adverse tendency, and non-cooperation of family members, etc. women entrepreneurs are sometimes deterred to start a business in Mexico.
Implications & Recommendations: It is necessary to raise the awareness of different factors that promote female entrepreneurship in Mexico. Governmental programmes which support female entrepreneurship, business incubators, and networking could be very helpful for women when starting their own business.
Contribution & Value Added: The originality of this work lies in studying motivational factors for female entrepreneurship in Mexico. The Mexican society faces a big revolution towards female entrepreneurship. Based on the change of family structure and traditions, women nowadays are having more opportunities to develop as entrepreneurs.
female entrepreneurship; Mexico; push factors; pull factors; promoting female entrepreneurship
Allen, I.E., Langowitz, N., & Minniti, M. (2006). Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Report on Wom-en and Entrepreneurship. London: Babson College, Babson Park, MA, London Business School.
Begum, R. (1993). Factors affecting growth of women entrepreneurship in Bangladesh. Dhaka University Journal of Business Studies, 14(2), 99-106.
Begum, R. (2001). Empowering women through entrepreneurship development. Dhaka University Journal of Business Studies, XXII(1), 141-153.
Biklen, S., & Bogdan, R. (2007). Qualitative Research for Education (5th ed.). Syracuse, NY: Pear-son.
Birley, S. (1989). Female Entrepreneurs: Are they really any different?. Journal of Small Business Management, 27(1), 32 – 37.
Bobrowska, S., & Conrad, H. (2017). Discourses of Female Entrepreneurship in the Japanese Busi-ness Press – 25 Years and Little Progress. Japanese Studies, 37, 1. doi: 10.1080/10371397.2017.1293474
Brush, C.G. (1992). Research on women business owners: past trends, a new perspective and future directions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 16(4), 5-30.
Bönte, W., & Piegeler, M. (2012). The Gender Gap in Latent and Nascent Entrepreneurship: Driven by Competitiveness. Small Business Economics, 3, 1–27. doi: 10.1007/s11187-012-9459-3.
Carsrud, A., & Branänback, M. (2011). Entrepreneurial motivations: What do we still need to know?. Journal of Small Business Management, 49(1), 9-26.
Crea Comunidades de Emprendedores Sociales (2015). Retrieved on November 15, 2016 from http://www.crea.org.mx/mujeres/
Croson, R., & Gneezy, U. (2009). Gender fidderences in Preferences. Journal of Economic Litera-ture, 47(2), 448-74. doi: 10.1257/jel.47.2.448.
Della Peruta, M.R., Maggioni, M., & Schiavone, F. (2014). Exploring gender issues in entrepreneur-ship: what about students and recent graduates?. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management, 18(1), 59-74. doi: 10.1504/IJEIM.2014.062790
FNE (Director) (2016). Tutoriales del Fondo Nacional del Emprendedor [Motion Picture]. Mexico.
GEM (2014). Reporte Nacional 2014 Mexico. Monterrey, Mexico: Tecnológico de Monterrey.
Gilad, B., & Levine, P. (1986). A behavioral model of entrepreneurial supply. Journal of Small Busi-ness Management, 24 (4), 45-53.
Goduscheit, R.C. (2011). State of the art in entrepreneurship research. A policy-oriented review with particular emphasis on the gender perspective and the Norwegian context. Retrieved on November 15, 2016 from http://www.damvad.com/media/11159/21778-mer_program_-_policyoriented_review_february_2011.pdf
Gray, K., & Finley-Hervey, J. (2005). Women and entrepreneurship in Morocco: Debunking stereo-types and discerning strategies. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 1(2), 203-217. doi: 10.1007/s11365-005-1129-3.
Guerrero Ramos, L., Armenteros Acosta, M., Chavarría López, S., Canibe Cruz, F., & Reyna García, G. (2012). Construcción de un perfil de las mujeres emprendedoras en Torreón, Coahuila, México. Global Conference on Business and Finance Proceedings, (pp. 1596-1602).
Guest, G., Namey, E., & Mitchell , M. (2013, June 16). 22-25 May, 2012, San Jose, Costa Rica. Retrieved on April 21, 2017 from http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/48453_ch_1.pdf
Hopp, C., & Stephan, U. (2012). The Influence of Sociocultural Environments on the Performance of Nascent Entrepreneurs: Community Culture, Motivation, Self-Efficacy and Start-Up Success. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 24(9-10), 917-945. doi: 10.1080/08985626.2012.742326
Ingle, M. (2014). A study of role and importance of motivation in the development of work envi-ronment. New Main International Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, 1(3), 283-287.
Instituto Nacional del Emprendedor (2016). Retrieved on April 21, 2017 from http://empresarias.inmujeres.gob.mx/
Jones-Evans, D. (1995). A typology of technology-based entrepreneurs: A model based on previous. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, 1(1), 26-47. doi: 10.1108/13552559510079751
Kelley, D., Singer, S., & Herrington, M. (2016). Global Entrepreneurship Monitor – 2015 Global Report. Retrieved on November 15, 2016 from http://gemconsortium.org/default.aspx
Kirkwood, J. (2009). Motivational factors in a push-pull theory of entrepreneurship. Gender in Management: An International Journal, 24(5), 346-364. doi: 10.1108/17542410910968805.
Kumar S.A, Poornima S.C, Abraham M.K., & Jayashree. K. (2003). Entrepreneurship Development. New Delhi: New Age International (P) Limited Publishers.
Lomnitz-Adler, C. (1992). Exits of the labyrinth: Culture and ideology in the Mexican national space. Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press.
Martinez, S.D. (1998). The Mexican entrepreneur. International studies of Management and Or-ganization, 28(97-123).
Maslow, A. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50, 370-396.
Malhotra, N. (2010). Marketing research: An applied orientation (6th ed.). Boston: Pearson.
Malhotra, N., & Peterson, M. (2006). Basic Marketing Research: A Decision-Making Approach. New York: Pearson Education Inc.
McClelland, E., Swail, J., Bell, J., & Ibbotson, P. (2005). Following the pathway of female entrepre-neurs: A six-country investigation. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Re-search, 11(2), 84-107. doi: 10.1108/13552550510590527
McNeil, R. (2005). Business to Business Market Research. London: Kogan Page.
Minniti, M., & Nardone, C. (2007). Being in someone else’s shoes: the role of gender in nascent entrepreneurship. Small Business Economics, 28(2-3), 223-238. doi: 10.1007/s11187-006-9017-y
Moore, D.P., & Buttner, E.H. (1997). Women Entrepreneurs: Moving Beyond the Glass Ceiling. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Orhan, M., & Scott, D. (2001). Why women enter into entrepreneurship: An explorative model. Women in Management Review, 16(5), 232-243. doi: 10.1108/09649420110395719
Ragin, C., & Amorosa, L. (2011). Constructing Social Research: The Unity and Diversity of Method. Thousand Oaks: Pine Forge Press, SAGE Publications.
Shane, S., Locke E.A., & Collins, C.J. (2003). Entrepreneurial motivation. Human Resource Man-agement Review, 13(2), 257-279. doi:10.1016/S1053-4822(03)00017-2
Shabbir, A., & Gregorio, S. (1994). An Examination of the Relationship between Women’s Personal Goals and Structural Factors Influencing their Decision to Start a Business: The Case of Paki-stan. Journal of Business Venturing, 11(6), 507-529.
Shmailan, A.B. (2016). Compare the Characteristics of Male and Female Entrepreneurs as Explor-ative Study. Journal of Entrepreneurship and Organization Management, 5(4), 203. doi: 10.4172/2169-026X.1000203
Tominc, P., & Rebernik, M. (2004). The scarcity of Female entrepreneurship. Društvena istraživan-ja, 13(4-5), 779-802.
Tominc, P., & Rebernik, M. (2007). Gender differences in early-stage entrepreneurship in three European post-socialist countries. Društvena istraživanja, 16(3), 589-611.
Verheul, I., Thurik R., Grilo I., & van der Zwan, P. (2012). Explaining Preferences and Actual In-volvement in Self-employment: Gender and the Entrepreneurial Personality. Journal of Eco-nomic Psychology, 33, 325-341. doi: 10.1016/j.joep.2011.02.009
Wagner, J. (2007). What a Difference a Y makes—Female and Male Nascent Entrepreneurs in Germany. Small Business Economics, 28, 1–21. doi:10.1007/s11187-005-0259-x
Warnecke, T. (2014). Are we fostering opportunity entrepreneurship for women? Exploring policies and programmes in China and India. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management, 18 (2/3), 154 – 181. doi: 10.1504/IJEIM.2014.062880
Zapalska, A. (1997). Profiles of Polish Entrepreneurship. Journal of Small Business Management, 35(2), 111-117.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a CC BY-ND licence that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are asked to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access). We advise to use any of the following reserach society portals: