The Role of Specialisation in the Export Success of Polish Counties in 2004-2015


Objective: The objective of this article is to evaluate the role of specialisation in the export success of counties (powiats) (LAU 1) in Poland between 2004 and 2015.

Research Design & Methods: Using panel fixed-effects regressions with Driscoll and Kraay standard errors, the authors investigate the role of export specialisation and product concentration, as well as comparative advantages on the value of log exports per capita, controlling for other important export determinants.

Findings: Estimations of the panel model bring the conclusion that specialisation in a positive way contributes to the value of exports per capita, assessed at county level. The robustness of the obtained results has been verified by the use of several concentration and specialisation measures, incl. HHI, Krugman specialisation index, weighted RCA and concentration ratio.

Implications & Recommendations:Further research is recommended to capture the consequences of differentiation in the patterns of exports among counties in terms of agricultural vs. industrial goods as well as the low-tech vs. high-tech products. Similar research is recommended to be done at NUTS-2 level in order to inquire into the rationale of smart specialisation(s).

Contribution & Value Added: The main contribution of the research is showing the lumpiness of Poland’s exports at county level in terms of product specialisation and concentration. The value added is depicting the positive role of specialisation for the exports success, understood as exports per capita.


internationalisation; regional trade; export specialisation; export concentration; LAU 1; panel

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Published : 2018-06-15

NazarczukJ., UmińskiS., & Gawlikowska-HueckelK. (2018). The Role of Specialisation in the Export Success of Polish Counties in 2004-2015. Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, 6(2), 91-109.

Jarosław M. Nazarczuk
University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn Faculty of Economic Sciences  Poland

PhD in Economics, Assistant Professor appointed at the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland.

Correspondence to: Jarosław Nazarczuk, PhD, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Oczapowskiego, 4, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland, e-mail:
Stanisław Umiński 
University of Gdańsk / Institute for Development  Poland

Associate Professor of the Gdańsk University (Research Centre on European Integration) and the vice chairman of Institute for Development in Sopot, Poland.   

Correspondence to: University of Gdańsk, Research Centre on European Integration, ul. Armii Krajowej 119/121, 81-824 Sopot and Instytut Rozwoju, ul. J. Czyżewskiego 6/1, 81-706 Sopot, e-mail: and

Krystyna Gawlikowska-Hueckel 
University of Gdańsk / Institute for Development 

Associate Professor of the Gdańsk University (Economics of European Integration Chair) and the vice chairman of Institute for Development in Sopot, Poland.

Correspondence to: University of Gdańsk, Economics of European Integration Chair, ul. Armii Krajowej 119/121, 81-824 Sopot and Instytut Rozwoju, ul. J. Czyżewskiego 6/1, 81-706 Sopot, e-mail:

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