Building aware and unaware consumers’ trust towards family business: Evidence from Poland
Objective: The objective of the article is to examine what attributes are assigned to family firms by consumers familiar and not familiar with family business in the context of trust-building and purchase intention.
Research Design & Methods: A nationwide quantitative survey on a statistically representative random-cluster sample of 1 091 consumers was conducted in 2018, based on the fundamentals of pre-survey qualitative research.
Findings: This study proves a low level of consumers’ familiarity with family firms and indicates attributes assigned to family firms by two segments of buyers. The findings show for which segments the concept of endorsed identity could be influential in the purchasing process, and for which might it be a subordinate stimulus when compared to consumers’ trust.
Implications & Recommendations: Although a family firm’s origin can serve as a cue to purchase, there is a challenge in educating the audience regarding the low level of consumers’ knowledge of family businesses. A legal construct provided in this study may reinforce trust towards family firms accompanied with purchase.
Contribution & Value Added: This study is based on a representative large sample of consumers, additionally divided into two portrayed segments. It proposes a process of how a family business identity may be endorsed. The proposed legal construct is a novelty in the market and has not been investigated in other scientific research.
family business; consumers; trust, purchase; endorsed identity
Anninou, I., & Foxall, G.R. (2017). Consumer decision-making for functional foods: Insights from a qualitative study. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 34(7), 552-565.
Bartlett, M.S. (1937). Properties of Sufficiency and Statistical Tests. Proceedings of the Royal Socie-ty of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences, 160(901), 268-282. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspa.1937.0109
Beck, S., & Kenning, P. (2015). The influence of retailers’ family firm image on new product ac-ceptance: an empirical investigation in the German FMCG market. International Journal of Re-tail & Distribution Management, 43(12), 1126-1143. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJRDM-06-2014-0079
Beck, S. (2016). Brand management research in family firms. Journal of Family Business Manage-ment, 6(3), 225-250. https://doi.org/10.1108/JFBM-02-2016-0002
Beck, S., & Prügl, R. (2018). Family firm reputation and humanization: Consumers and the trust advantage of family firms under different conditions of brand familiarity. Family Business Re-view, 31(4), 460-482. https://doi.org/10.1177/0894486518792692
Becut, A. (2011). Apples, Quality Marks and Trademarks for Local Products. International Review of Social Research, 1(2), 65-83. https://doi.org/10.1515/irsr-2011-0011
Bednarz, J., Bieliński, T., Nikodemska-Wołowik, A.M., & Otukoya, A. (2017). Sources of the compet-itive advantage of family enterprises: An international approach focusing on China, Nigeria and Poland. Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, 5(2), 123-142. https://doi.org/10.15678/EBER.2017.050207
Beltramini, R.F., & Stafford, E.R. (1993). Comprehension and Perceived Believability of Seals of Approval Information in Advertising. Journal of Advertising, 22(3), 3-13. https://doi.org/10.1080/00913367.1993.10673407
Bhati, S.S. (2015). Relation Between Trust Theory and Agency Theory. In S. Natarajan, M. Ganesh Babu, B. Nagarjuna, & R. Rajkumar (Eds.), Commerce and Management – A Modern Perspec-tive (p. 451-460). India: Archers and Elevators Publishing House.
Bilan Y., Mishchuk H., Pylypchuk R. (2017). Towards sustainable economic development via social entrepreneurship. Journal of Security & Sustainability Issues, 6(4), 691-702. http://doi.org/10.9770/jssi.2017.6.4(13)
Bilan, Y., Mishchuk, H., Samoliuk, N., & Grishnova, O. (2019). ICT and Economic Growth: Links and Possibilities of Engaging. Intellectual Economics, 13(1). https://doi.org/10.13165/IE-19-13-1-07
Binz Astrachan, C., Patel, V.K., & Wanzenried, G. (2014). A comparative study of CB-SEM and PLS-SEM for theory development in family firm research. Journal of Family Business Strategy, 5(1), 116-128. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfbs.2013.12.002
Binz Astrachan, C., & Botero, I.C. (2018). We are a family firm: An exploration of the motives for communicating the family business brand. Journal of Family Business Management, 8(1), 2-21. https://doi.org/10.1108/JFBM-01-2017-0002
Binz, C., Hair, J.F., Pieper, T.M., & Baldauf, A. (2013). Exploring the effect of distinct family firm reputation on consumers’ preferences. Journal of Family Business Strategy, 4(1), 3-11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfbs.2012.12.004
Blombäck, A., & Ramírez-Pasillas, M. (2012). Exploring the logics of corporate brand identity for-mation. Corporate Communications: An International Journal, 17(1), 7-28. https://doi.org/10.1108/13563281211196335
Bogdan, W., Boniecki, D., Labaye, E., Marciniak T., & Nowacki, M. (2015). Poland 2025: Europe’s new growth engine. Warsaw: Mc Kinsey & Company.
Botero, I.C., Thomas, J., Graves, C., & Fediuk, T.A. (2013). Understanding multiple family firm iden-tities: An exploration of the communicated identity in official websites. Journal of Family Busi-ness Strategy, 4(1), 12-21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfbs.2012.11.004
Botero I.C., Spitzley D., Lude M., & Prügl R. (2019). Exploring the Role of Family Firm Identity and Market Focus on the Heterogeneity of Family Business Branding Strategies. In E. Memili, C. Di-brell (Eds.), The Palgrave Handbook of Heterogeneity among Family Firms (pp. 909-932). Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.
Botos, S., Szilágyi, R., Felföldi, J., & Tóth, M. (2020). Readiness for ICT based B2C information flow - case study of the hungarian food sector. Agris on-Line Papers in Economics and Informatics, 12(2), 41-51. https://doi.org/10.7160/aol.2020.120204
Bozic, B. (2017). Consumer trust repair: A critical literature review. European Management Journal, 35(4), 538-547. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.emj.2017.02.007
Brunner, C.B., Ullrich, S., & De Oliveira, M.J. (2019). The most optimal way to deal with negative consumer review: Can positive brand and customer responses rebuild product purchase inten-tions?. Internet Research, 29(1), 104-122. https://doi.org/10.1108/IntR-08-2017-0307
Brunet-Tornton, R. (2017). Foreword to the special edition, the return to Europe: a generation of re-inventing national identities. Baltic Journal of Management, 12(1), 2-5. https://doi.org/10.1108/BJM-10-2016-0239
Burrell, K. (Ed.). (2016). Polish Migration to the UK in the 'New' European Union: After 2004. Lon-don, New York: Routledge.
Carrigan, M., & Buckley, J. (2008). What’s so special about family business? An exploratory study of UK and Irish consumer experiences of family businesses. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 32(6), 656-666. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1470-6431.2008.00696.x
Castelfranchi, C., & Falcone, R. (2010). Trust Theory. A Socio-Cognitive and Computational Model. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons.
Christidis, N., Tsoulfa, G., Varagunam, M., & Babatzimopoulou, M. (2011). A cross sectional study of consumer awareness of functional foods in Thessaloniki, Greece. Nutrition & Food Science, 41(3), 165-174. https://doi.org/10.1108/00346651111132439
Craig, J.B., Dibrell, C., & Davis, P.S. (2008). Leveraging family-based brand identity to enhance firm competitiveness and performance in family businesses. Journal of Small Business Management, 46(3), 351-371. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-627X.2008.00248.x
Cruz, C.C., Gomez-Mejia, L.R., & Becerra, M. (2010). Perceptions of benevolence and the design of agency contracts: CEO-TMT relationships in family firms. Academy of Management Journal, 53(1), 69-89. https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2010.48036975
Dąbrowska A. (2011). Consumer behaviour in the market of catering services in selected
countries of Central-Eastern Europe. British Food Journal, 113(1), 96-108. https://doi.org/10.1108/00070701111097367
Darnall, N., Hyunjung J., & Vazquez-Brust, D. (2018). Third-Party Certification, Sponsorship, and Consumers’ Ecolabel Use. Journal of Business Ethics, 150, 953-969. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-016-3138-2
de Wenden, C.W. (2016). The Impact of the Economic Crisis on Migration Flows: Polish Immigrants in the UK and Ireland. In: D. Leal, N. Rodríguez (Eds.), Migration in an Era of Restriction and Re-cession. Immigrants and Minorities, Politics and Policy (pp. 291-304). Cham: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-24445-7_15
Dutta, S., & Pullig, C. (2011). Effectiveness of corporate responses to brand crisis: the role of crisis type and response strategies. Journal of Business Research, 64(12), 1281-1287. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2011.01.013
Eddleston, K.A., Chrisman, J.J., Steier, L.P., & Chua, J.H. (2010). Governance and Trust in Family Firms: An Introduction. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 34(6), 1043-1056. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6520.2010.00412.x
Edelman Trust Barometer (2017). Special Report: Family Business. Retrieved from https://www.edelman.com/research/family-business-trust on November 22, 2018.
European Commission (2009). Final report of the expert group overview of family-enterprise-relevant issues: Research, networks, policy measures and existing studies. Brussels: Direc-torate-General for Enterprise and Industry.
Ghai, S., & Sharma, A. (2019). Effect of Perceived Health Benefits and Trust on Customer’s Satisfac-tion & Willingness to Pay for Organic Foods. Indian Journal of Community Health, 31(1), 123-126.
Grewal, R., Cline, T., & Davies, A. (2003). Early-entrant advantage, word-of-mouth communication, brand similarity, and the consumer decision-making process. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 13(3), 187-197. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327663JCP1303_01
Guo, G., Tu, H., & Cheng, B. (2018). Interactive effect of consumer affinity and consumer ethnocen-trism on product trust and willingness-to-buy: a moderated-mediation model. Journal of Con-sumer Marketing, 35(7), 688-697. https://doi.org/10.1108/JCM-06-2017-2239
Hall, C., & Astrachan, J. (2015). Study: Customers Really Do Trust Family Businesses More. Harvard Business Review Digital Articles, April 27. Retrieved from https://hbr.org/2015/04/study-customers-really-do-trust-family-businesses-more on January 3, 2019.
Han, C.M., & Won, S.B. (2018). Cross-country differences in consumer cosmopolitanism and ethno-centrism: A multilevel analysis with 21 countries. Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 17(1), e52-e66. https://doi.org/10.1002/cb.1675
Hartnett, N., Romaniuk, J., & Kennedy, R. (2016). Comparing direct and indirect branding in adver-tising. Australasian Marketing Journal, 24(1), 20-28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ausmj.2015.12.002
Harris, L., O’Malley, L., & Patterson, M. (2003). Professional interaction: exploring the concept of attraction. Marketing Theory, 3(1), 9-36. https://doi.org/10.1177/1470593103003001002
Herold, K., Tarkiainen, A., & Sundqvist, S. (2016). How the source of word-of-mouth influences information processing in the formation of brand attitudes. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 26(1), 64-85. https://doi.org/10.1080/08841241.2016.1146387
Hill, C.A., & O’Hara, E.A. (2006). A Cognitive Theory of Trust. Washington University Law Review, 84(7), 1723-1724.
Hobbs, J.E., & Goddard, E. (2015). Consumers and Trust. Food Policy, 52(C), 71-74. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodpol.2014.10.017
Hosmer, L.T. (1995). Trust: the connecting link between organizational theory and philosophical ethics. The Academy of Management Review, 20(2), 379-403. https://doi.org/10.2307/258851
Issock Issock, P.B., Mpinganjira, M., & Roberts-Lombard, M. (2018). Drivers of consumer attention to mandatory energy-efficiency labels affixed to home appliances: An emerging market per-spective. Journal of Cleaner Production, 204, 672-684. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.08.299
Jakubowska, D., & Radzymińska, M. (2019). Health and environmental attitudes and values in food choices: a comparative study for Poland and Czech Republic. Oeconomia Copernicana, 10(3), 433-452. https://doi.org/10.24136/oc.2019.021.
Janšto, E., Polakovič, P., Hennyeyová, K., & Slováková, I. (2019). Analysis of the current support of E-marketing activities in selected enterprises of the wine sector in slovakia. Agris on-Line Pa-pers in Economics and Informatics, 11(4), 31-34. https://doi.org/10.7160/aol.2019.110403
Kaiser, H.F. (1960). The application of electronic computers to factor analysis. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 20, 141-151. https://doi.org/10.1177/001316446002000116
Kamins, M.A., & Marks, L.J. (1991). The perception of kosher as a third party certification claim in advertising for familiar and unfamiliar brands. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 19(3), 177-185. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02726494
Kargol-Wasiluk, A., & Wildowicz-Giegiel, A. (2018). The quality of public finance in the light of fiscal governance concept: implications for the European Union countries. Equilibrium. Quarterly Journal of Economics and Economic Policy, 13(3), 411-426. https://doi.org/10.24136/eq.2018.020
Kim, R.B., & Chao, Y. (2019). Effects of brand experience, brand image and brand trust on brand building process: The case of Chinese millennial generation consumers. Journal of International Studies, 12(3), 9-21. https://doi.org/10.14254/2071- 8330.2019/12-3/1
Košičiarová, I., Kádeková, Z., Holotová, M., Kubicová, L., & Predanocyová, K. (2020). Consumer preferences in the content of loyalty to the yoghurt brand. Agris on-Line Papers in Economics and Informatics, 12(1), 37-48. https://doi.org/10.7160/aol.2020.120104
Lude, M., & Prügl, R. (2018). Why the family business brand matters: Brand authenticity and the family firm trust inference. Journal of Business Research, 89, 121-134. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2018.03.040
Lušňáková, Z., Juríčková, Z., Šajbidorová, M., & Lenčéšová, S. (2019). Succession as a sustainability factor of family business in Slovakia. Equilibrium. Quarterly Journal of Economics and Economic Policy, 14(3), 503-520. https://doi.org/10.24136/eq.2019.024
Ma, J., & Orgun, M.A. (2006). Trust Management and Trust Theory Revision. IEEE Transactions On Systems, Man, And Cybernetics – Part A: Systems And Humans, 36(3), 451. https://doi.org/10.1109/TSMCA.2006.871628
Mariampolski, H. (2001). Qualitative market research: A comprehensive guide. Thousand Oaks – London – New Delhi: Sage Publications.
Mayo, E., & Fielder, A. (2006). I will if you will. Consumer Policy Review, 16(4), 148-155.
Micelotta, E.R., & Raynard, M. (2011). Concealing or revealing the family? Corporate brand identity strategies in family firms. Family Business Review, 24(3), 197-216. https://doi.org/10.1177/0894486511407321
Morhart, F., Malar, L., Guevremont, A., Girardin, F., & Grohmanmn B. (2014). Brand authenticity: An integrative framework and measurement scale. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 25(2), 200-218. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcps.2014.11.006
Neesham, C., & Tache, I. (2010). Is there an East-European social model?. International Journal of Social Economics, 37(5), 344-360. https://doi.org/10.1108/03068291011038936
Ners, D. (2017), Coalitional Games, Excessive Competition and a Lack of Trust: An Experimental Approach. Economics and Sociology, 10(2), 227-238. https://doi.org/10.14254/2071-789X.2017/10-2/17
Nikodemska-Wolowik, A.M. (2006). Family enterprises – a chance to create a strong Polish business identity. The Marketing Review, 6(4), 301-316.
Norberg, H.M. (2000). Use of Collective Trademarks in Consumers’ Choice of Foods – Preliminary Results. Økonomisk Fiskeriforskning, 10(2). Retrieved from https://nofima.no/filearchive/Use%20of%20collective%20trademarks%20in%20Consumers%20Choice%20of%20Foods%20-%20Preliminary%20results.pdf on November 15, 2018.
Oliveira, T., Alhinho, M., Rita P., & Dhillon, G. (2017). Modelling and testing consumer trust dimen-sions in e-commerce. Computers in Human Behavior, 71(6), 153-164. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2017.01.050
Orth, U.R., & Green, M.T. (2009). Consumer loyalty to family versus non-family business: The roles of store image, trust and satisfaction. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 16, 248-259. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jretconser.2008.12.002
Regulation (EU) 2017/1001 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 June 2017 on the European Union Trade Mark. Retrieved from https//: eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?qid=1506417891296&uri=CELEX:32017R1001 on November 6, 2018.
Ricci, E.C., Banterle, A., & Stranieri, S. (2018). Trust to Go Green: An Exploration of Consumer Inten-tions for Eco-friendly Convenience Food. Ecological Economics, 148(6), 54-65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2018.02.010
Rosina, M. (2018). The Power of Communicating the family Firm Status. The Positive Effect of Family Firms as a Brand on Consumer Buying Behavior and Consumer Happiness. Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien.
Roudposhti, V.M., Nilashi, M., Mardani, A., Streimikiene, D., Samad, S., & Ibrahim, O. (2018). A new model for customer purchase intention in e-commerce recommendation agents. Journal of In-ternational Studies, 11(4), 237-253. https://doi.org/10.14254/2071-8330.2018/11-4/17
Saldana, J., & Omasta, M. (2018). Qualitative research: Analyzing life. Thousand Oaks – London – New Delhi: Sage Publications.
Sageder, M., Mitter, C., & Feldbauer-Durstmüller, B. (2018). Image and reputation of family firms: A systematic literature review of the state of research. Review of Managerial Science, 12, 335-377. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11846-016-0216-x
Schellong, M., Kraiczy, N.D., Malär, L., & Hack, A. (2019). Family Firm Brands, Perceptions of Doing Good, and Consumer Happiness. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 43(5), 921-946. https://doi.org/10.1177/1042258717754202
Schwass, J., & Glemser, A.C. (2016). Toolbox—A Process for Moving from Family Identity to Family Business Brand. In: Wise Family Business. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Sicilia, M., Delgado‐Ballester, E., & Palazon, M. (2016). The need to belong and self‐disclosure in positive word‐of‐mouth behaviours: The moderating effect of self–brand connection. Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 15, 60-71. https://doi.org/10.1002/cb.1533
Skvarciany, V., Jurevičienė, D., Iljins, J., & Gaile-Sarkane, E. (2018). Factors influencing a bank’s competitive ability: the case of Lithuania and Latvia. Oeconomia Copernicana, 9(1), 7-28. https://doi.org/10.24136/oc.2018.001.
Spence, M. (1973). Job market signaling. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 87(3), 355-374. https://doi.org/10.2307/1882010
Trends in consumers’ behaviour in Poland. (2017). In A. Warzybok (Ed.) Polish Society for Market and Opinion Research. Warsaw: AMPS Agencja Marketingowa.
Urbancová, H., & Hudáková, H. (2017). Benefits of Employer Brand and the Supporting Trends. Economics and Sociology, 10(4), 41-50. https//doi.org/10.14254/2071- 789X.2017/10-4/4
Vassilikopoulou, A., Lepetsos, A., & Siomkos, G. (2018). Crises through the consumer lens: the role of trust, blame and risk. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 35(5), 502-511. https://doi.org/10.1108/JCM-02-2016-1721
Wang, S.-C., Soesilo, P.K., & Zhang, D. (2015). Impact of Luxury Brand Retailer Co-Branding Strate-gy on Potential Customers: A Cross-Cultural Study. Journal of International Consumer Market-ing, 27(3), 237-252. https://doi.org/10.1080/08961530.2014.970320
Wolf, S. (2018). Signaling Family Firm Identity: Family Firm Identification and its Effects on Job Seek-ers’ Perceptions about a Potential Employer. Wiesbaden: Springer Gabler.
Woodside, F.M., & Summers, J. (2012). The Impact of Sponsorship Awareness in
Low Involvement Settings. Contemporary Management Research, 8(3), 205-228. https://doi.org/10.7903/cmr.11154
Zanon, J., Scholl-Grissemann, U., Kallmuenzer, A., Kleinhansl, N., & Peters, M. (2019). How promot-ing a family firm image affects customer perception in the age of social media. Journal of Family Business Strategy 10(1), 28-37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfbs.2019.01.007
Zupan, N., Dziewanowska, K., & Pearce, A. (2017). Wanting it all: the challenges of managing young talent in transition economies. Baltic Journal of Management, 12(1), 63-85. https://doi.org/10.1108/BJM-02-2016-0054
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a CC BY-ND licence that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are asked to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access). We advise to use any of the following reserach society portals: