Skip to main navigation menu Skip to main content Skip to site footer

What Explains the Varying Degree of Export? Internal or External Factors


Objective: The objective of this article is to determine and analyse export conditions by combining the entrepreneurial resource perspective and formal institutional approach.

Research Design & Methods: Drawing on a representative sample of global nascent entrepreneurs, cross-level (random-effects) moderation analysis is applied to explicate the influence of a country’s formal institution on the relationship between entrepreneurial resource-based determinants and the degree of export, and this method enables the study of country-level slopes.

Findings: The results suggest that there is a positive relation between self-efficacy and export and that people who have the willingness to pursue decisions or courses of action associated with uncertainty are more likely to export. In addition, the research findings also confirm the positive moderating effect of formal institutions on entrepreneurial resource aspects and the degree of export.

Implications & Recommendations: The findings of the study have implications in particular for policy-makers who are interested in encouraging early export by influencing institutional dimensions. Policymakers have largely concentrated on institutions to increase entrepreneurial opportunities, but institutions may not be sufficient to stimulate international entrepreneurship.

Contribution & Value Added: The originality of this work lies in adopting a more comprehensive approach in studying export by integrating entrepreneurial resource perspective with the institutional dimensions.


export, institutions, entrepreneurial resource aspects, risk attitude

PDF Tables and Figures (updated)

Supplementary File(s)

Tables and Figures (old version)


  1. Adserà, A., Boix, C., & Payne, M. (2003). Are You Being Served? Political Accountability and Quality of Government. The Journal of Law, Economics and Organization, 19(2), 445-490.
  2. Ahlstrom, D., & Bruton, G. (2001). Learning from successful local private firms in China: establish-ing legitimacy. The Academy of Management Executive, 15(4), 72-83.
  3. Barkema, H.G., Bell, J.H.J., & Pennings, J.M. (1996). Foreign entry, cultural barriers, and learning. Strategic Management Journal, 17(2), 151-166.<151::AID-SMJ799>3.0.CO;2-Z
  4. Barney, J. (1991). Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Journal of Management, 17(1), 99-120.
  6. Bandura, A. (1977). Self-Efficacy: Toward a Unifying Theory of Behavioral Change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191-215.
  7. Bandura, A. (1982). The Assessment and Predictive Generality of Self-Percepts of Efficacy. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 13(3), 195-199.
  8. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought & action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
  9. Bandura, A. (1989). Human Agency in Social Cognitive Theory. American Psychologist, 44(9), 1175-1184.
  10. Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.
  11. Birney, R.C., Burdick, H., & Teevan, R.C. (1999). Fear of Failure. New York: Van Nostr &-Reinhold Company.
  12. Bowen, H.P., & De Clercq, D. (2008). Institutional context and the allocation of entrepreneurial effort. Journal of International Business Studies, 39(4), 747-767.
  13. Buckley, P.J., Clegg, J., Cross, A., Zheng, P., Voss, H., & Liu, X. (2007). The determinants of Chinese outward foreign direct investment. Journal of International Business Studies, 39(4), 499-518.
  14. Cacciotti, G., Hayton, J.C., Mitchell, J.R., & Giazitzoglu, A. (2016). A reconceptualization of fear of failure in entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Venturing, 31(3), 302-325.
  15. Chrupała-Pniak, M., Grabowski, D., & Sulimowska-Formowicz, M. (2017). Trust in Effective International Business Cooperation: Mediating Effect of Work Engagement. Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, 5(2), 27-50.
  16. Chen, C.C., Greene, P.G., & Crick, A. (1998). Does entrepreneurial self-efficacy distinguish entre-preneurs from managers?. Journal of Business Venturing, 13(4), 295-316.
  17. Etayankara, M., & Saurav, P. (2016). Informal institutions and international entrepreneurship. International Business Review, 19(1), 85-101. https://doi.10.1016/j.ibusrev.2016.07.006
  18. De Carolis, D.M., & Saparito, P. (2006). Social capital, cognition, and entrepreneurial opportunities: a theoretical framework. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 30(1), 41-56.
  19. Dunning, J.H., & Lundan, S.M. (2008). Multinational Enterprises and the Global Economy. Cornwall: Edward Elgar Publishing.
  20. Fama, E.F., & French, K.R. (1993). Common risk factors in the returns on stocks and bonds. Journal of Financial Economics, 33(1), 3-56.
  21. Fukuyama, F. (2014). Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalization of Democracy. London: Profile books ltd.
  22. Gaur, A.S., Kumar, V., & Singh, D. (2014). Institutions, resources, and export of emerging economy firms. Journal of World Business, 49(1), 12-20.
  23. Głodowska, A. (2017). Business Environment & Economic Growth in the European Union Countries: What Can Be Explained for the Convergence?. Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Re-view, 5(4), 189-204.
  24. Głodowska, A., & Wach, K. (2017). Editorial: International Entrepreneurship: New Perspective in IB Research. Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, 5(3), 7-8.
  25. Hayton, J.C., & Cacciotti, G. (2013). Is there an entrepreneurial culture? A review of empirical research. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 25(9), 708-731.
  26. Heckman, J.J. (1979). Sample selection bias as a specification error. Econometrica, 47(1), 153-161.
  27. Hofmann, D.A., Griffin, M.A., & Gavin, M.B. (2000). The application of hierarchical linear modeling to organizational research. In K.J. Klein & S.W.J. Kozlowski (Eds.), Multileveltheory, research, and methods in organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  28. Holmberg, S., Rothstein, B., & Nasiritousi, N. (2009). Quality of Government: What You Get. Annual Review of Political Science, 12(1), 135-162.
  29. Hoskisson, R.E., Eden, L., Lau, C.M., & Wright, M. (2000). Strategy in emerging economies. Acade-my of Management Journal, 43(3), 249-267.
  30. Jackson, D.N. (1994). Jackson Personality Inventory: Revised manual. Port Huron, MI: Sigma As-sessment Systems.
  31. Johanson, J., & Wiedersheim-Paul, F. (1975). The export of the firm – Four Swedish cases. Journal of Management Studies, 12(3), 305-322.
  32. Kaufmann, D., Kray, A., & Zoido-Lobotan, P. (1999). Governance matters (Policy Research Working Paper no. 2196). Washington, DC: World Bank Development Research Group.
  33. Kleinfeld, R. (2006). Competing Definitions of the Rule of Law. In T. Carothers (Ed.), Promoting the Rule of Law Abroad: In Search of Knowledge (pp. 31-74). Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment.
  34. Kowalik, I., Danik, L., Král, P., & Řezanková, H. (2017). Antecedents of Accelerated Internationalisa-tion of Polish and Czech Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises. Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, 5(3), 31-48.
  35. Kyriazidou, E. (1997). Estimation of a panel data sample selection model. Econometrica, 65(6), 1335-1364.
  36. Liu, C. (2017). International Competitiveness and the Fourth Industrial Revolution. Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, 5(4), 111-133.
  37. Liu, Y., Li, Y., & Xue, J. (2011). Ownership: Strategic orientation and export in emerging markets. Journal of World Business, 46(3), 381-93.
  38. Luo, Y., Xue, Q., & Han, B. (2010). How emerging market governments promote outward FDI: Experience from China. Journal of World Business, 45(1), 68-79.
  39. Martin, K.D., Cullen, J.B., Johnson, J.L., & Praveen Parboteeah, K. (2007). Deciding to Bribe: A Cross-Level Analysis of Firm and Home Country Influences on Bribery Activity. Academy of Manage-ment Journal, 50(6), 1401-1422.
  40. O’Farrell, P.N., Wood, P.A., & Zheng, J. (1998). Regional influences on foreign market development by business service companies: elements of a strategic context explanation. Regional Studies, 32, 31-48.
  41. Peng, M.W., Wang, D.Y.L., & Jiang, Y. (2008). An institution based view of international business strategy: A focus on emerging economies. Journal of International Business Studies, 39(5), 920-936.
  42. Podsakoff, P.M., MacKenzie, S.B., Lee, J., & Podsakoff, N. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 879-903.
  43. Porter, M.E. (1980), Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors, NewYork: Free Press.
  44. Reynolds, P., Carter, N., Gartner, W., Greene, P., & Cox, L. (2002). The entrepreneur next door characteristics of individuals starting companies in America, Kansas City, MO: Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation.
  45. Rialp, A., Rialp, J., & Knight, G.A. (2005). The phenomenon of early internationalizing firms: What do we know after a decade (1993-2003) of scientific inquiry?. International Business Review, 14(2), 147-166.
  46. Rothstein, B., & Teorell, J. (2008). What is quality of government? A theory of impartial govern-ment institutions. Governance: An International Journal of Policy. Administration and Institu-tions, 21(2), 165-190.
  47. Satish, K., & Thompson, S.H. Teo (2012). Moderating Effects of Governance on Information Infra-structure and E-Government Development. Journal of the American society for information science & technology, 63(10), 1929-1946.
  48. Scott, W.R. (1995). Institutions & organizations. Foundations for organizational science. London: SAGE Publications.
  49. Sigfusson, T., & Harris, S. (2012). Domestic market context and international entrepreneurs’ relationship portfolios. International Business Review, 22(1), 243-258.
  50. Meso, P., Datta, P., & Mbarika, V. (2006). Moderating information and communication technolo-gies’ influences on socioeconomic development with good governance: A study of the devel-oping countries. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 57(2), 186-197.
  51. Nadkarni, S., & Barr, P.S. (2008). Environmental context, managerial cognition, and strategic ac-tion: an integrated view. Strategic Management Journal, 29(13), 1395-1427.
  52. Naffziger, D.H. (1994). A proposed model of entrepreneurial motivaton. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 29-41.
  53. North, D.C. (1990). Institutions, Institutional Change & Economic Performance. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, MA.
  54. Thai, M., & Turkina, E. (2014). Macro-level determinants of formal entrepreneurship versus infor-mal entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Venturing, 29(4), 490-510.
  55. Urbano, D., Alvarez, C., & Turró, A. (2013). Organisational resources and intrapreneurial activities: an international study. Management Decision, 51(4), 854-870.
  56. Westhead, P. (1995). Exporting and non-exporting small firms in Great Britain. A matched pairs comparison. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior and Research, 1(2), 6-36.
  57. Wiseman, R.M., & Catanach, C. (1997). A longitudinal disaggregation of operational risk under changing regulations: Evidence from the savings and loan industry. Academy of Management Journal, 40(4), 799-830.
  58. Wiseman, R.M., & Gomez-Meija, L.R. (1998). A behavioral agency model of managerial risk taking. Academy of Management Review, 23(1), 133-153.
  59. Wooldridge, J. (1995). Selection corrections for panel data models under conditional mean inde-pendence assumptions. Journal of Econometrics, 68(1), 115-132.
  60. Zahra, S.A., Korri, J.S., & Yu, J. (2005). Cognition and international entrepreneurship: Implications for research on international opportunity recognition and exploitation. International Business Review, 14(2), 129-146.
  61. Zander, I., McDougall-Covin, P., & Rose, E.L. (2015). Born globals and international business: Evolu-tion of a field of research. Journal of International Business Studies, 46(1), 27-35.


Download data is not yet available.

Similar Articles

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 > >> 

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.