Skip to main navigation menu Skip to main content Skip to site footer

Import Intensity of Production, Tasks and Wages: Micro-Level Evidence for Poland




Objective: This article relates to recent literature on labour market consequences of production fragmentation within Global Value Chains, analysed in the presence of workers’ heterogeneity and differences in the task content of jobs. The main aim is to assess if there is a relationship between wages of Polish workers and the degree of Polish production dependence on imported inputs.

Research Design & Methods: Using microdata from EU-SILC on workers from Poland observed in 2008-2014, we estimate a Mincerian model, augmented by a measure of task content of occupations and the industry level index of the import intensity of production computed with input-output data and accounting for good’s production sequence). IV estimation is employed to account for potential endogeneity between the import intensity of production and wages.

Findings: Regression results suggest that negative relationship between wages of Polish workers and the dependence of their sector of employment on foreign inputs is magnified by the routinisation level of the occupation. Hence occupation-specific task requirements play a role.

Implications & Recommendations: It implies that not all the Polish workers are affected in the same. The movements towards jobs with higher degree of non-routine content could protect against negative wage effects of fragmentation.

Contribution & Value Added: The relationship between wages in Poland and the reliance on foreign inputs and GVCs links has not yet been studied from the micro-level task-based perspective. This article fills in this gap.



import intensity of production, global value chains, production fragmentation, wages, tasks


Author Biography

Aleksandra Parteka

I am an associate professor at the Faculty of Management and Economics at Gdansk University of Technology (Gdansk, Poland). I got my MSc degree in Economics from Gdansk University of Technology (2003) and Universita’ Politecnica delle Marche (2005), as well as MA degree in Contemporary European Studies from Sussex University (2006).  I received my PhD in Economics in 2008 from Universita’ Politecnica delle Marche (Ancona, Italy). In the academic year 2011/2012 I was a post-doc visiting researcher in the Department of Economics and Business at the Universitat Pompeu Fabra (Barcelona, Spain). In July 2016 I got a habilitation in economics.In 2018 as Fulbright Senior Awardee I will be visiting University of California, Berkeley.

My research interests:  International Trade, Economic Integration, Trade-Labor Market Interactions; Productivity and Efficiency Analysis.


  1. Acemoglu, D., & Autor, D. (2011). Skills, tasks and technologies: Implications for employment and earnings. In O. Ashenfelter & D.E. Card (Eds.), Handbook of Labor Economics, 4 (pp. 1043-1171), Amsterdam: Elsevier.
  2. Adamchik, V.A., & Hyclak, T.J. (2017). Economic Transition and Regional Wages: The Evidence from Poland. Journal Transition Studies Review, 24(1), 47-69.
  3. Autor, D., Levy, F., & Murnane, R. (2003). The skill content of recent technological change: an empirical exploration. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 118(4), 1279-1333.
  4. Autor, D.H., & Dorn, D. (2013). The growth of low-skill service jobs and the polarization of the US labor market. The American Economic Review, 103(5), 1553-1597.
  5. Autor, D. (2013). The ‘task approach’ to labor markets: an overview. Journal for Labour Market Research, 46(3), 185-199.
  6. Autor, D.H., & Handel, M.J. (2013). Putting tasks to the test: Human capital, job tasks, and wages. Journal of Labor Economics, 31(S1), S59-S96.
  7. Autor, D.H., & Price, B. (2013). The changing task composition of the US labor market: An update of Autor, Levy, & Murnane (2003). (MIT Working Paper). Retrieved on February 12, 2018 from
  8. Autor, D.H., Dorn, D., & Hanson, G.H. (2015). Untangling Trade and Technology: Evidence from Local Labour Markets. Economic Journal, 125(584), 621-646.
  9. Baldwin, R., & Robert-Nicoud, F. (2014). Trade-in-goods and trade-in-tasks: An integrating framework. Journal of International Economics, 92(1), 51-62.
  10. Baumgarten, D., Geishecker, I., & Görg, H. (2013). Offshoring, tasks, and the skill-wage pattern. European Economic Review, 61, 132-152.
  11. Becker, S.O., & Muendler, M.A. (2015). Trade and tasks: an exploration over three decades in Germany. Economic Policy, 30(84), 589-641.
  12. Becker, S.O., Ekholm, K., & Muendler, M.A. (2013). Offshoring and the onshore composition of tasks and skills. Journal of International Economics, 90(1), 91-106.
  13. Berger, M., & Schaffner, S. (2016). A note on how to realize the full potential of the EU-SILC data. Journal of Economic and Social Measurement, 41(4), 395-416.
  14. Cieślik, A., & Rokicki, B. (2016). Individual wages and regional market potential. Economics of Transition, 24(4), 661-682.
  15. Costinot, A., Vogel, J., & Wang, S. (2012). An elementary theory of global supply chains. Review of Economic Studies, 80(1), 109-144
  16. Dietzenbacher, E., Los, B., Stehrer, R., Timmer, M., & De Vries, G. (2013). The construction of world input-output tables in the WIOD project. Economic Systems Research, 25(1), 71-98.
  17. Ebenstein, A., Harrison, A., McMillan, M., & Phillips, S. (2014). Estimating the impact of trade and offshoring on American workers using the current population surveys. Review of Economics and Statistics, 96(4), 581-595.
  18. EC (2014). Methodological guidelines and description of EU-SILC target variables. 2014 operation (Version October 2014). DocSILC065 (2014 operation).
  19. Feenstra, R., & Hanson, G. (2001). Global production sharing and rising inequality: A survey of trade and wages (NBER Working Paper No. 8372). National Bureau of Economic Research.
  20. Fortin, N., & Lemieux, T. (2016). Inequality and Changes in Task Prices: Within and between Occupation Effects. In Inequality: Causes and Consequences (pp. 195-226). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
  21. Frankel, J.A., & Romer, D.H. (1999). Does trade cause growth?. American Economic Review, 89(3), 379-399.
  22. Goos, M., Manning, A., & Salomons, A. (2014). Explaining job polarization: Routine-biased technological change and offshoring. The American Economic Review, 104(8), 2509-2526.
  23. Goraus, K., Tyrowicz, J., & Velde, L. (2017). Which Gender Wage Gap Estimates to Trust? A Comparative Analysis. Review of Income and Wealth, 63(1), 118-146.
  24. Grossman, G.M., & Rossi-Hansberg, E. (2008). Trading tasks: A simple theory of offshoring. The American Economic Review, 98(5), 1978-1997.
  25. Grossman, G.M., & Rossi‐Hansberg, E. (2012). Task trade between similar countries. Econometrica, 80(2), 593-629.
  26. Hardy, W., Keister, R., & Lewandowski, P. (2016a). Technology or Upskilling? Trends in the Task Composition of Jobs in Central and Eastern Europe. IBS Working Paper Series, Institute of Structural Research (IBS). (HKUST IEMS Working Paper No. 2016-40). Retrieved on February 12, 2018 from
  27. Hardy, W., Keister, R., & Lewandowski, P. (2016b). Do entrants take it all? The evolution of task content of jobs in Poland. Ekonomia. Rynek, Gospodarka, Społeczeństwo, 47(2016), 23-50.
  28. Hardy, W., Keister, R., & Lewandowski, P. (2018). Educational upgrading, structural change and the task composition of jobs in Europe. Economics of Transition, 26(2), 201-231.
  29. Heckman, J.J., Lochner, L.J., & Todd, P.E. (2006). Earnings functions, rates of return and treatment effects: The Mincer equation and beyond. Handbook of the Economics of Education, 1, 307-458.
  30. Hummels, D., Ishii, J., & Yi, K.M. (2001). The nature and growth of vertical specialization in world trade. Journal of International Economics, 54(1), 75-96.
  31. Iacovou, M., Kaminska, O., & Levy, H. (2012). Using EU-SILC data for cross-national analysis: strengths, problems and recommendations (ISER Working Paper Series No. 2012-03).
  32. Johnson, R.C., & Noguera, G. (2012). Accounting for intermediates: Production sharing and trade in value added. Journal of International Economics, 86(2), 224-236.
  33. Johnson, R.C., & Noguera, G. (2016). A portrait of trade in value added over four decades (NBER Working Paper No. 22974), National Bureau of Economic Research.
  34. Keister, R., & Lewandowski, P. (2017). A routine transition in the digital era? The rise of routine work in Central and Eastern Europe. Transfer: European Review of Labour and Research, 23(3), 263-279.
  35. Koopman, R., Wang, Z., & Wei, S.J. (2014). Tracing value-added and double counting in gross exports. The American Economic Review, 104(2), 459-494.
  36. Krueger, A.B. (1993). How Computers Have Changed the Wage Structure: Evidence from Microda-ta, 1984-1989. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 33-60.
  37. Los, B., Timmer, M.P., & Vries, G.J. (2015). How global are global value chains? A new approach to measure international fragmentation. Journal of Regional Science, 55(1), 66-92.
  38. Magda, I., Marsden, D., & Moriconi, S. (2016). Lower coverage but stronger unions? Institutional changes and union wage premia in Central Europe. Journal of Comparative Economics, 44(3), 638-656.
  39. Majchrowska, A., & Strawiński, P. (2016). Regional Differences in Gender Wage Gaps in Poland: New Estimates Based on Harmonized Data for Wages. Central European Journal of Economic Modelling and Econometrics, 8(2), 115-141.
  40. Majchrowska, A., & Strawiński, P. (2017). Impact of minimum wage increase on gender wage gap: Case of Poland. Economic Modelling (in press). Retrieved on February 12, 2018 from
  41. Marcolin, L., Miroudot, S., & Squicciarini, M. (2016). The routine content of occupations: new cross-country measures based on PIAAC. OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers, 2016(2).
  42. Mattoo, A., Wang, Z., & Wei, S.J. (2013). Trade in value added: developing new measures of cross-border trade (World Bank Publications No. 15809). Washington: The World Bank.
  43. Mincer, J., & Polachek, S. (1974). Family investments in human capital: Earnings of women. Journal of Political Economy, 82(2, Part 2), S76-S108.
  44. Schäfer, A., & Gottschall, K. (2015). From wage regulation to wage gap: how wage-setting institutions and structures shape the gender wage gap across three industries in 24 European countries and Germany. Cambridge Journal of Economics, 39(2), 467-496.
  45. Spitz-Oener, A. (2006). Technical change, job tasks, and rising educational demands: looking out-side the wage structure. Journal of Labor Economics, 24(2), 235-270.
  46. Timmer, M.P., Dietzenbacher, E., Los, B., Stehrer, R., & de Vries, G.J. (2015). An Illustrated User Guide to the World Input-Output Database: the Case of Global Automotive Produc-tion. Review of International Economics, 23, 575-605.
  47. Timmer, M.P., Erumban, A.A., Los, B., Stehrer, R., & de Vries, G.J. (2014). Slicing up global value chains. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 28(2), 99-118.
  48. Timmer, M.P., Los, B., Stehrer, R., & de Vries, G.J. (2016). An Anatomy of the Global Trade Slowdown based on the WIOD 2016 Release (GGDC research memorandum number 162), University of Groningen.
  49. Wood, A. (1995). How trade hurt unskilled workers. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 9(3), 57-80.
  50. WTO (2017). World Trade Report 2017. Trade, technology and jobs. Geneva: World Trade Organisation.


Download data is not yet available.