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Individual determinants of entrepreneurship in Visegrád countries: Reflection on GEM data from the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia



Objective: The article explores the individual determinants driving solo self-employment and employer entrepreneurship in four post-communist economies located in Central Europe (the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia).

Research Design & Methods: The article exploits data from the 2013 Adult Population survey, a part of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM). Using multivariate logistic regression models, we explore the differences between wage-employed, solo self-employed, and employer entrepreneurs (self-employed with employees), concerning traditional determinants of entrepreneurship, such as gender, age, education, entrepreneurial confidence, and the number of people living in a household.

Findings: The obtained findings show that – regardless of the type of self-employment – there is a strong and positive impact of entrepreneurial confidence on the likelihood of being an established entrepreneur. The impact of remaining variables differed across the type of entrepreneurship.

Implications & Recommendations: This research highlights that self-employed individuals with and without employees should be treated in research and policymaking separately.

Contribution & Value Added: The presented research contributes to the growing body of literature aiming to understand differences between solo self-employed individuals and employer entrepreneurs.



Individual Determinants of Entrepreneurship; Self-employment; Job Creators; Solo Self-employed Individuals; Global Entrepreneur-ship Monitor; Czech Republic; Hungary; Slovakia; Poland

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