Tenant mix structure in shopping centres: some empirical analyses from Poland


Objective: The objective of this paper is to find an ideal tenant mix structure for the current shopping centres in Upper Silesian Urban Area Region in Poland, taking under consideration consumer preferences and behaviour.

Research Design & Methods: Apart from literature review, empirical research is based on a survey questionnaire. The Analytic Hierarchy Process was applied in the analysis of the data collected.

Findings: The research confirmed that to a great extent the valid tenant mix structure in the surveyed shopping centres meets with friendly attitude of customers. However, there are areas where improvement can increase the visitors’ satisfaction. Moreover, it was proven that shopping remains the main reason for customers’ visits in shopping centres, in spite of extending the offer of this type of places with new functions.

Implications & Recommendations: Real estate managers are recommended to take actions aiming at increasing competitiveness on the market via the extension of the proposed shopping offer and their adjustment to customers’ expectations. For the managers, the results of the conducted research suggest lack of the necessity for radical transformations, and transforming Polish shopping centres into facilities of the fourth and fifth generation, which is slow in Poland, is, as it turns out, not necessarily expected, since customers identify shopping centres mainly with their traditional function.

Contribution & Value Added: The proposed research model and findings can serve as a useful lens within the research of tenant mix structure in shopping centres in other parts of the Poland.


Tenant mix; real estate management; shopping centres; shopping mall

Abghari, M., & Hanzaee, K. (2011). Investigation of the Effects of Stores’ Tenant Mix and Internal and External Environmental Conditions on Customer Satisfaction from Shopping Centers in Iran. International Journal of Marketing Studies, 3(1), 158-164.

Adamus, W., & Gręda, A. (2005). Wspomaganie decyzji wielokryterialnych w rozwiązywaniu wybranych problemów organizacyjnych i menedżerskich. Badania operacyjne i decyzje, 2, 10-15.

Borgers, A., Brouwer, M., Kunen, T., Jessurun, J., & Janssen, I. (2010). A virtual reality tool to measure shoppers’ tenant mix preferences. Computers. Environment and Urban Systems, 34, 377-388.

Bucklin, L. P. (1967). The concept of mass in intra – urban shopping. Journal of Marketing, 31, 37-42.

Carter, Ch., & Allen, M. (2012). A Method for Determining Optimal Tenant Mix (Including Location) in Shopping Centers. Cornell Real Estate Review, 10, 72-73.

Celińska-Janowicz, D. (2011). Centra handlowe wobec miejskiej przestrzeni publicznej- nie tylko imitacja. Paper presented at XXIV Konwersatorium Wiedzy o Mieście. Retrieved from http://www.euroreg.uw.edu.pl.

Commercial market H1 2015. Report. Poland (2015). Warsaw: Knight Frank.

Dawson, J. A. (1983). Shopping centre development. New York: Longman.

Eppli, M., & Benjamin, J. (1994). The Evolution of Shopping Center Research: A Review and Analysis. The Journal of Real Estate Research, 9(1), 5-32.

Fong, P. (2003). What makes big dumb bells a mega shopping mall?, pp. 2. Presented at 4th International Space Syntax Symposium. Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu

Krakow Real Estate market 2014 (2015), Cracow: Knight Frank.

Kong, E., & Kim, Y. (2013). Examination of spatial characteristics influencing sales by tenant types in shopping mall, Paper presented at Ninth International Space Syntax Symposium. Retrieved from http://www.sss9.or.kr

Mejia, L., & Eppli, M. (1999). The Identification, Performance, and Tenant Mix of Dominant and NonDominant Malls, pp.2. Retrieved from http://www.reri.org

Michon, R., Yu, H., Smith, D., & Chebat, J-Ch. (2008). The Influence of Mall Environment on Female Fashion Shoppers’ Value and Behaviour. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, 12(4), 456-468.

Ojouk, Ch. (2010). Analysis of tenant mix in shopping malls. The case study of the junction and Tmalls, pp. 19-21. Retrieved from http://erepository.uonbi.ac.ke, (accessed October 2015).

Prusak, A., Strojny, J., & Stefanów, P. (2014). Analityczny Proces Hierarchiczny na skróty- kluczowe pojęcia i literatura. Humanities and Social Sciences, 19(21), 179-192.

Prusak, A., Stefanów, P., & Gardian, M. (2013). Graficzna forma kwestionariusza w badaniach AHP/ANP. Modern Management Review, 171-189

Reimers, V., & Clulow, V. (2004). Retail concentration: a comparison of spatial convenience in shopping strips and shopping centres. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 11, 209.

Raport II Poł. 2014 Retail Research Forum Polska (2014), Rada Centrów Handlowych.

Rutkowski, M., & Skarzyński, A. (2011). Zagadnienia realizacji centrów handlowo-rozrywkowych na przykładzie budowy galerii Malta w Poznaniu. Civil and Environmental Engineering, 2, 645.

Sadal, M. (2015). Raport Cushman&Wakefield: ranking marek w polskich centrach handlowych. Retrieved from http://retailnet.pl/2015/02/26/100284-cw-najbardziej-powszechne-marki-w-polskich-centrach-handlowych

Szczepańska, J. (2011). Demokracja przez projekt? Wykorzystanie teorii space syntax do zrozumienia współobecności różnych użytkowników w przestrzeni publicznej (Unpublished master's thesis, Uniwersytet Warszawski, Poland), Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu .

Tang, H. (2009). The influence of tenant mix planning on the patronage of neighborhood shopping centres in Hong Kong, (Unpublished master's thesis, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong), Retrieved from https://hub.hku.hk

Teller, Ch., & Reutterer, T. (2008). The Evolving Concept of Retail Attractiveness: what makes retail agglomerations attractive when customers shop at them? Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 15(3), 127-143.

Timmermans, H. (1993). Predictive Models of Consumer Spatial Shopping Behavior. In Garling T., Golledge R. (Ed.), Behavior and Environment. Psychological and Geochartical Approaches, pp. 349-350. North Holland: Elsevier.

You, T., Crosby, N., Lizieri, C., & McCann, P. (2004). Tenant Mix Variety in Regional Shopping Centres: Some UK Empirical Analyses. Real Estate & Planning Working Paper 21650. Retrieved from http://www.reading.ac.uk

Yiu, Ch., Xu, S., & Cheong, H. (2008). Space allocation and tenant placement at high-rise shopping malls. Journal of Retail and Leisure Property, 7(4), 315–324

Zieba, M., Belniak, S., & Gluszak, M. (2013). Demand for sustainable Office space in Poland: the results from a conjoint experiment In Krakow. Property management, 31(5), 404-419


Published : 2016-06-28

Marona, B., & Wilk, A. (2016). Tenant mix structure in shopping centres: some empirical analyses from Poland. Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, 4(2), 51-65. https://doi.org/10.15678/EBER.2016.040205

Bartłomiej Marona  maronab@uek.krakow.pl
Online Editor, Cracow University of Economics  Poland

assistant Professor at the Cracow University of Economics, Faculty of Economics and International Relations, Department of Real Estate and Investment Economics.

PhD in economics in the specialisation of real estate management (2010).

member of European Real Estate Society and American Real Estate Society.

his research focuses on real estate economics and real estate management in the public sector, especially in the area of local government.

he has published over 50 articles, book chapters and papers.

Anna Wilk 

CitedBy Crossref

CitedBy Scopus

Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:

  1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a CC BY-ND licence that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
  2. Authors are asked to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.

 Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access). We advise to use any of the following reserach society portals: