What Explains the Varying Degree of Export? Internal or External Factors


Objective: The objective of this article is to determine and analyse export conditions by combining the entrepreneurial resource perspective and formal institutional approach.

Research Design & Methods: Drawing on a representative sample of global nascent entrepreneurs, cross-level (random-effects) moderation analysis is applied to explicate the influence of a country’s formal institution on the relationship between entrepreneurial resource-based determinants and the degree of export, and this method enables the study of country-level slopes.

Findings: The results suggest that there is a positive relation between self-efficacy and export and that people who have the willingness to pursue decisions or courses of action associated with uncertainty are more likely to export. In addition, the research findings also confirm the positive moderating effect of formal institutions on entrepreneurial resource aspects and the degree of export.

Implications & Recommendations: The findings of the study have implications in particular for policy-makers who are interested in encouraging early export by influencing institutional dimensions. Policymakers have largely concentrated on institutions to increase entrepreneurial opportunities, but institutions may not be sufficient to stimulate international entrepreneurship.

Contribution & Value Added: The originality of this work lies in adopting a more comprehensive approach in studying export by integrating entrepreneurial resource perspective with the institutional dimensions.


export; institutions; entrepreneurial resource aspects; risk attitude

Adserà, A., Boix, C., & Payne, M. (2003). Are You Being Served? Political Accountability and Quality of Government. The Journal of Law, Economics and Organization, 19(2), 445-490. https://doi.org/10.1093/jleo/ewg017

Ahlstrom, D., & Bruton, G. (2001). Learning from successful local private firms in China: establish-ing legitimacy. The Academy of Management Executive, 15(4), 72-83.

Barkema, H.G., Bell, J.H.J., & Pennings, J.M. (1996). Foreign entry, cultural barriers, and learning. Strategic Management Journal, 17(2), 151-166. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0266(199602)17:2<151::AID-SMJ799>3.0.CO;2-Z

Barney, J. (1991). Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Journal of Management, 17(1), 99-120.


Bandura, A. (1977). Self-Efficacy: Toward a Unifying Theory of Behavioral Change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191-215. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.84.2.191

Bandura, A. (1982). The Assessment and Predictive Generality of Self-Percepts of Efficacy. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 13(3), 195-199. https://doi.org/10.1016/0005-7916(82)90004-0

Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought & action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Bandura, A. (1989). Human Agency in Social Cognitive Theory. American Psychologist, 44(9), 1175-1184. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.44.9.1175

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.

Birney, R.C., Burdick, H., & Teevan, R.C. (1999). Fear of Failure. New York: Van Nostr &-Reinhold Company.

Bowen, H.P., & De Clercq, D. (2008). Institutional context and the allocation of entrepreneurial effort. Journal of International Business Studies, 39(4), 747-767.

Buckley, P.J., Clegg, J., Cross, A., Zheng, P., Voss, H., & Liu, X. (2007). The determinants of Chinese outward foreign direct investment. Journal of International Business Studies, 39(4), 499-518.

Cacciotti, G., Hayton, J.C., Mitchell, J.R., & Giazitzoglu, A. (2016). A reconceptualization of fear of failure in entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Venturing, 31(3), 302-325. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusvent.2016.02.002

Chrupała-Pniak, M., Grabowski, D., & Sulimowska-Formowicz, M. (2017). Trust in Effective International Business Cooperation: Mediating Effect of Work Engagement. Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, 5(2), 27-50. https://doi.org/10.15678/EBER.2017.050202

Chen, C.C., Greene, P.G., & Crick, A. (1998). Does entrepreneurial self-efficacy distinguish entre-preneurs from managers?. Journal of Business Venturing, 13(4), 295-316.

Etayankara, M., & Saurav, P. (2016). Informal institutions and international entrepreneurship. International Business Review, 19(1), 85-101. https://doi.10.1016/j.ibusrev.2016.07.006

De Carolis, D.M., & Saparito, P. (2006). Social capital, cognition, and entrepreneurial opportunities: a theoretical framework. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 30(1), 41-56. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6520.2006.00109.x

Dunning, J.H., & Lundan, S.M. (2008). Multinational Enterprises and the Global Economy. Cornwall: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Fama, E.F., & French, K.R. (1993). Common risk factors in the returns on stocks and bonds. Journal of Financial Economics, 33(1), 3-56. https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-405X(93)90023-5

Fukuyama, F. (2014). Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalization of Democracy. London: Profile books ltd.

Gaur, A.S., Kumar, V., & Singh, D. (2014). Institutions, resources, and export of emerging economy firms. Journal of World Business, 49(1), 12-20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jwb.2013.04.002

Głodowska, A. (2017). Business Environment & Economic Growth in the European Union Countries: What Can Be Explained for the Convergence?. Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Re-view, 5(4), 189-204. https://doi.org/10.15678/EBER.2017.050409

Głodowska, A., & Wach, K. (2017). Editorial: International Entrepreneurship: New Perspective in IB Research. Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, 5(3), 7-8. https://doi.org/10.15678/EBER

Hayton, J.C., & Cacciotti, G. (2013). Is there an entrepreneurial culture? A review of empirical research. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 25(9), 708-731. https://doi.org/10.1080/08985626.2013.862962

Heckman, J.J. (1979). Sample selection bias as a specification error. Econometrica, 47(1), 153-161. https://doi.org/10.3386/w0172

Hofmann, D.A., Griffin, M.A., & Gavin, M.B. (2000). The application of hierarchical linear modeling to organizational research. In K.J. Klein & S.W.J. Kozlowski (Eds.), Multileveltheory, research, and methods in organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Holmberg, S., Rothstein, B., & Nasiritousi, N. (2009). Quality of Government: What You Get. Annual Review of Political Science, 12(1), 135-162. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-polisci-100608-104510

Hoskisson, R.E., Eden, L., Lau, C.M., & Wright, M. (2000). Strategy in emerging economies. Acade-my of Management Journal, 43(3), 249-267. https://doi.org/10.2307/1556394

Jackson, D.N. (1994). Jackson Personality Inventory: Revised manual. Port Huron, MI: Sigma As-sessment Systems.

Johanson, J., & Wiedersheim-Paul, F. (1975). The export of the firm – Four Swedish cases. Journal of Management Studies, 12(3), 305-322. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.1975.tb00514.x

Kaufmann, D., Kray, A., & Zoido-Lobotan, P. (1999). Governance matters (Policy Research Working Paper no. 2196). Washington, DC: World Bank Development Research Group.

Kleinfeld, R. (2006). Competing Definitions of the Rule of Law. In T. Carothers (Ed.), Promoting the Rule of Law Abroad: In Search of Knowledge (pp. 31-74). Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment.

Kowalik, I., Danik, L., Král, P., & Řezanková, H. (2017). Antecedents of Accelerated Internationalisa-tion of Polish and Czech Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises. Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, 5(3), 31-48. https://doi.org/10.15678/EBER.2017.050302

Kyriazidou, E. (1997). Estimation of a panel data sample selection model. Econometrica, 65(6), 1335-1364.

Liu, C. (2017). International Competitiveness and the Fourth Industrial Revolution. Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, 5(4), 111-133. https://doi.org/10.15678/EBER.2017.050405

Liu, Y., Li, Y., & Xue, J. (2011). Ownership: Strategic orientation and export in emerging markets. Journal of World Business, 46(3), 381-93.

Luo, Y., Xue, Q., & Han, B. (2010). How emerging market governments promote outward FDI: Experience from China. Journal of World Business, 45(1), 68-79.

Martin, K.D., Cullen, J.B., Johnson, J.L., & Praveen Parboteeah, K. (2007). Deciding to Bribe: A Cross-Level Analysis of Firm and Home Country Influences on Bribery Activity. Academy of Manage-ment Journal, 50(6), 1401-1422.

O’Farrell, P.N., Wood, P.A., & Zheng, J. (1998). Regional influences on foreign market development by business service companies: elements of a strategic context explanation. Regional Studies, 32, 31-48. https://doi.org/10.1080/00343409850123602

Peng, M.W., Wang, D.Y.L., & Jiang, Y. (2008). An institution based view of international business strategy: A focus on emerging economies. Journal of International Business Studies, 39(5), 920-936.

Podsakoff, P.M., MacKenzie, S.B., Lee, J., & Podsakoff, N. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 879-903.

Porter, M.E. (1980), Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors, NewYork: Free Press.

Reynolds, P., Carter, N., Gartner, W., Greene, P., & Cox, L. (2002). The entrepreneur next door characteristics of individuals starting companies in America, Kansas City, MO: Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation.

Rialp, A., Rialp, J., & Knight, G.A. (2005). The phenomenon of early internationalizing firms: What do we know after a decade (1993-2003) of scientific inquiry?. International Business Review, 14(2), 147-166.

Rothstein, B., & Teorell, J. (2008). What is quality of government? A theory of impartial govern-ment institutions. Governance: An International Journal of Policy. Administration and Institu-tions, 21(2), 165-190. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0491.2008.00391.x

Satish, K., & Thompson, S.H. Teo (2012). Moderating Effects of Governance on Information Infra-structure and E-Government Development. Journal of the American society for information science & technology, 63(10), 1929-1946. https://doi.org/10.1002/asi.22660

Scott, W.R. (1995). Institutions & organizations. Foundations for organizational science. London: SAGE Publications.

Sigfusson, T., & Harris, S. (2012). Domestic market context and international entrepreneurs’ relationship portfolios. International Business Review, 22(1), 243-258. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibusrev.2012.04.008

Meso, P., Datta, P., & Mbarika, V. (2006). Moderating information and communication technolo-gies’ influences on socioeconomic development with good governance: A study of the devel-oping countries. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 57(2), 186-197. https://doi.org/10.1002/asi.20263

Nadkarni, S., & Barr, P.S. (2008). Environmental context, managerial cognition, and strategic ac-tion: an integrated view. Strategic Management Journal, 29(13), 1395-1427. https://doi.org/10.1002/smj.717

Naffziger, D.H. (1994). A proposed model of entrepreneurial motivaton. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 29-41. https://doi.org/10.1177/104225879401800303

North, D.C. (1990). Institutions, Institutional Change & Economic Performance. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Thai, M., & Turkina, E. (2014). Macro-level determinants of formal entrepreneurship versus infor-mal entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Venturing, 29(4), 490-510.

Urbano, D., Alvarez, C., & Turró, A. (2013). Organisational resources and intrapreneurial activities: an international study. Management Decision, 51(4), 854-870. https://doi.org/10.1108/00251741311326617

Westhead, P. (1995). Exporting and non-exporting small firms in Great Britain. A matched pairs comparison. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior and Research, 1(2), 6-36. https://doi.org/10.1108/13552559510090604

Wiseman, R.M., & Catanach, C. (1997). A longitudinal disaggregation of operational risk under changing regulations: Evidence from the savings and loan industry. Academy of Management Journal, 40(4), 799-830.

Wiseman, R.M., & Gomez-Meija, L.R. (1998). A behavioral agency model of managerial risk taking. Academy of Management Review, 23(1), 133-153.

Wooldridge, J. (1995). Selection corrections for panel data models under conditional mean inde-pendence assumptions. Journal of Econometrics, 68(1), 115-132.

Zahra, S.A., Korri, J.S., & Yu, J. (2005). Cognition and international entrepreneurship: Implications for research on international opportunity recognition and exploitation. International Business Review, 14(2), 129-146. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibusrev.2004.04.005

Zander, I., McDougall-Covin, P., & Rose, E.L. (2015). Born globals and international business: Evolu-tion of a field of research. Journal of International Business Studies, 46(1), 27-35. https://doi.org/10.1057/jibs.2014.60

Published : 2018-06-15

LiT. (2018). What Explains the Varying Degree of Export? Internal or External Factors. Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, 6(2), 29-43. https://doi.org/10.15678/EBER.2018.060202

Tianchen Li  t.x.li@mdx.ac.uk
Middlesex University  United Kingdom

Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:

  1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a CC BY-ND licence that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
  2. Authors are asked to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.

 Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) only the final version of the article, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access). We advise using any of the following research society portals: