Entrepreneurial Technology Opportunism and Its Impact on Business Sustainability with the Moderation of Government Regulations
Purpose: This Paper aims to examine the direct relationship between technological opportunism (TO) and business sustainability (BS). The study examines the relation through moderation of government regulations (GR) between TO and BS. The objectives of this research were to establish TO as an important antecedent for the sustainability of small and medium enterprises (SMEs), assess the interaction of TO with GR and to establish relations that how Pakistani SMEs are focusing on their business sustainability through government regulations?
Research Design & Methods: This empirical study is based on 480 key informants belong to the SME sector of Pakistan. Structural Equation Modeling analysis was utilized to analyze the research hypothesis by using Smart PLS.
Findings: Our analysis shows that TO and GR have a positive significant impact on BS of Pakistani SMEs. However, the interaction of TO and GR is also found to have a significant impact on BS but negative.
Research Implications: Furthermore, the study offers the insights and implications for policymakers, regulators and academics that the TO is the most important factor for the business sustainability of SMEs.
Contribution: The findings of this study bridge the gap between the entrepreneurial technological opportunism and business sustainability literature by establishing TO as an important antecedent of BS.
technology opportunism; government regulations; business sustainability; SMEs; Pakistan
Abetti, P.A. (1992). Planning and building the infrastructure for technological entrepreneurship. International Journal of Technology Management, 7(1-3), 129-139.
Adeoti, J.O. (2002). Building technological capability in the less developed countries: the role of
a national system of innovation. Science and Public Policy, 29(2), 95-104.
Afzal, M. (2006). Causality between exports, world income and economic growth in Pakistan. International Economic Journal, 20(1), 63-77.
Agan, Y., Acar, M.F., & Borodin, A. (2013). Drivers of environmental processes and their impact on performance: a study of Turkish SMEs. Journal of Cleaner Production, 51, 23-33.
Agu Igwe, P., Ituma, A., & Madichie, N. (2018). The Evaluation of CSR and Social Value Practices Among UK Commercial and Social Enterprises. Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, 6((1), 37-52. https://doi.org/10.15678/EBER.2018.060102
Agyemang, O.S., & Ansong, A. (2017). Corporate social responsibility and firm performance of Ghanaian SMEs: Mediating role of access to capital and firm reputation. Journal of Global Responsibility, 8(1), 47-62.
Al-Maskari, A., Al-Maskari, M., Alqanoobi, M., & Kunjumuhammed, S. (2019). Internal and external obstacles facing medium and large enterprises in Rusayl Industrial Estates in the Sultanate of Oman. Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research, 9(1), 1.
Ali, F., Dey, B.L., & Filieri, R. (2015). An assessment of service quality and resulting customer satisfaction in Pakistan International Airlines: Findings from foreigners and overseas Pakistani customers. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 32(5), 486-502. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJQRM-07-2013-0110
Alvarez, S.A., Audretsch, D., & Link, A.N. (2016). Advancing our understanding of theory in entrepreneurship. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 10(1), 3-4.
Alvarez, S.A., & Barney, J.B. (2010, 2012). Entrepreneurship and epistemology: The philosophical underpinnings of the study of entrepreneurial opportunities. Academy of Management Annals, 4(1), 557-583.
An, M., & Noh, Y. (2009). Airline customer satisfaction and loyalty: impact of in-flight service quality. Service Business, 3(3), 293-307. https://doi.org/ 10.1007/s11628-009-0068-4
Anthony, S.D., Eyring, M., & Gibson, L. (2006). Mapping your innovation strategy. Harvard Business Review, 84(5), 104-113, 157.
Archana, R., & M V Subha, D. (2012). A study on service quality and passenger satisfaction on Indian airlines International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research. 2(2), 50-63.
Awan, U. (2017). Mediation analysis of environmental training: Perceived stakeholder pressure and environmental supply chain management practices. International Journal of Research, 6(1), 1-21.
Awan, U., Kraslawski, A., & Huiskonen, J. (2017). Understanding the relationship between stakeholder pressure and sustainability performance in manufacturing firms in Pakistan. Procedia Manufacturing, 11, 768-777.
Badzińska, E. (2016). The Concept of Technological Entrepreneurship: The Example of Business Implementation Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, 4(3), 57-72. https://doi.org/10.15678/EBER.2016.040305Bagozzi, R.P., & Yi, Y. (1988). On the evaluation of structural equation models. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 16(1), 74-94.
Bakar, L.J.A., & Ahmad, H. (2010). Assessing the relationship between firm resources and product innovation performance: A resource-based view. Business Process Management Journal, 16(3), 420-435.
Baron, R.A. (2008). The role of affect in the entrepreneurial process. Academy of Management Review, 33(2), 328-340.
Battisti, G. (2008). Innovations and the economics of new technology spreading within and across users: gaps and way forward. Journal of Cleaner Production, 16(1), S22-S31.
Blok, V., Gremmen, B., & Wesselink, R. (2016). Dealing with the wicked problem of sustainability: The role of individual virtuous competence. Business and Professional Ethics Journal. https://doi.org/10.5840/bpej201621737
Boons, F., & Lüdeke-Freund, F. (2013). Business models for sustainable innovation: state-of-the-art and steps towards a research agenda. Journal of Cleaner Production, 45, 9-19.
Bos‐Brouwers, H.E.J. (2010). Corporate sustainability and innovation in SMEs: evidence of themes and activities in practice. Business Strategy and the Environment, 19(7), 417-435.
Brown, T.E., Davidsson, P., & Wiklund, J. (2001). An operationalization of Stevenson's conceptualization of entrepreneurship as opportunity‐based firm behavior. Strategic Management Journal, 22(10), 953-968.
Brundtland, G.H., Khalid, M., & Agnelli, S. (1987). World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future. New York: Oxford University Press.
Cai, W., & Li, G. (2018). The drivers of eco-innovation and its impact on performance: Evidence from China. Journal of Cleaner Production, 176, 110-118.
Carroll, A.B., & Buchholtz, A.K. (2014). Business and society: Ethics, sustainability, and stakeholder management. Stamford: Nelson Education.
Casson, M. (1982). The entrepreneur: An economic theory. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Cefis, E., & Ciccarelli, M. (2005). Profit differentials and innovation. Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 14(1-2), 43-61.
Chams, N., & García-Blandón, J. (2019). Sustainable or not sustainable? The role of
the board of directors. Journal of Cleaner Production, 226, 1067-1081. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.04.118
Chin, W.W. (1998). The partial least squares approach to structural equation modeling. Modern Methods for Business Research, 295(2), 295-336.
Clayton, A., Spinardi, G., & Williams, R. (1999). What shapes the implementation of cleaner technology? Policies for Cleaner Technology. London: Earthscan, 218-265.
Cohen, B., & Winn, M.I. (2007). Market imperfections, opportunity and sustainable entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Venturing, 22(1), 29-49.
Dar, M. S., Ahmed, S., & Raziq, A. (2017). Small and medium-size enterprises in Pakistan: Definition and critical issues. Pakistan Business Review, 19(1), 46-70.
Dasanayaka, S. (2008). SMEs in globalized world: A brief note on basic profiles of Pakistan's small and medium scale enterprises and possible research directions. Business Review, 3(1), 69-77.
Dean, T.J., & McMullen, J.S. (2007). Toward a theory of sustainable entrepreneurship: Reducing environmental degradation through entrepreneurial action. Journal of Business Venturing, 22(1), 50-76.
Dorf, R.C. (2011). Technology Ventures: From Idea to Enterprise. New York: McGraw-Hill Science
Doyle, E., & Perez-Alaniz, M. (2017). From the Concept to the Measurement of Sustainable Competitiveness: Social and Environmental Aspects. Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, 5(4), 35-59. https://doi.org/10.15678/EBER.2017.050402
Drexhage, J., & Murphy, D. (2010). Sustainable development: from Brundtland to Rio 2012. Background paper prepared for consideration by the High Level Panel on Global Sustainability at its first meeting 19 September 2010.
Duarte, P.A.O., & Raposo, M.L.B. (2010). A PLS model to study brand preference: An application to the mobile phone market. In V.E. Vinzi, W.W. Chin, J. Henseler, & H. Wang (eds), Handbook of partial least squares (pp. 449-485). Berlin: Springer.
El-Kassar, A.-N., & Singh, S.K. (2018). Green innovation and organizational performance: the influ-ence of big data and the moderating role of management commitment and HR practices. Technological Forecasting and Social Change. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2017.12.016
Epstein, M.J. (2018). Making sustainability work: Best practices in managing and measuring corporate social, environmental and economic impacts. London: Routledge.
Falk, R.F., & Miller, N.B. (1992). A primer for soft modeling. Ohio: University of Akron Press.
Farooq, M.S., & Markovic, M.R. (2017). Impact of Business Simulation Games on Entrepreneurial Intentions of Business Graduates: A PLS-SEM Approach. Belgrad: Compass Publishing.
Farooq, M.S., Salam, M., Jaafar, N., Fayolle, A., Ayupp, K., Radovic-Markovic, M., & Sajid, A. (2017). Acceptance and use of lecture capture system (LCS) in executive business studies: Extending UTAUT2. Interactive Technology and Smart Education, 14(4), 329-348. https://doi.org/10.1108/ITSE-06-2016-0015
Fellnhofer, K. (2017). Drivers of innovation success in sustainable businesses. Journal of Cleaner Production, 167, 1534-1545.
Fernando, Y., Jabbour, C.J.C., & Wah, W.-X. (2019). Pursuing green growth in technology firms through the connections between environmental innovation and sustainable business performance: Does service capability matter? Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 141, 8-20.
Fornell, C., & Larcker, D.F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39-50.
Freel, M.S. (2000). Barriers to product innovation in small manufacturing firms. International Small Business Journal, 18(2), 60-80.
Gans, J.S., & Stern, S. (2003). The product market and the market for “ideas”: commercialization strategies for technology entrepreneurs. Research Policy, 32(2), 333-350.
Geroski, P., Machin, S., & Van Reenen, J. (1993). The profitability of innovating firms. The RAND Journal of Economics, 198-211.
Gimenez, C., Sierra, V., & Rodon, J. (2012). Sustainable operations: Their impact on the triple bottom line. International Journal of Production Economics, 140(1), 149-159.
Gonzalez-Perez, M.A., Velez-Ocampo, J., & Herrera-Cano, C. (2018). Entrepreneurs’ Features Affecting the Internationalisation of Service SMEs. Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, 6(2), 9-28. https://doi.org/10.15678/EBER.2018.060201
Govindarajan, V., & Ramamurti, R. (2011). Reverse innovation, emerging markets, and global strategy. Global Strategy Journal, 1(3‐4), 191-205.
Hadjimanolis, A. (1999). Barriers to innovation for SMEs in a small less developed country (Cyprus). Technovation, 19(9), 561-570.
Hahn, T., Pinkse, J., Preuss, L., & Figge, F. (2015). Tensions in corporate sustainability: Towards an integrative framework. Journal of Business Ethics, 127(2), 297-316.
Hair, F. Jr, Sarstedt, M., Hopkins, L., & G. Kuppelwieser, V. (2014). Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) An emerging tool in business research. European Business Review, 26(2), 106-121
Hair, F.J., Hult, G.T.M., Ringle, C., & Sarstedt, M. (2017). A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) second ed. London, Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications Limited Inc.
Hale, J., Legun, K., Campbell, H., & Carolan, M. (2019). Social sustainability indicators as performance. Geoforum, 103, 47-55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2019.03.008
Hart, S.L., & Milstein, M.B. (2003). Creating sustainable value. Academy of Management Perspectives, 17(2), 56-67.
Henseler, J., Ringle, C.M., & Sarstedt, M. (2015). A new criterion for assessing discriminant validity in variance-based structural equation modeling. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 43(1), 115-135.
Henseler, J., Ringle, C.M., & Sinkovics, R.R. (2009). The use of partial least squares path modeling in international marketing. R. Sincovic, P. Ghuari (eds.), New challenges to international marketing (pp. 277-319). Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Hillary, R. (2017). Small and medium-sized enterprises and the environment: business imperatives. London: Routledge.
Hindle, K., & Yencken, J. (2004). Public research commercialisation, entrepreneurship and new technology based firms: an integrated model. Technovation, 24(10), 793-803.
Hmieleski, K.M., Carr, J.C., & Baron, R.A. (2015). Integrating discovery and creation perspectives of entrepreneurial action: The relative roles of founding CEO human capital, social capital, and psychological capital in contexts of risk versus uncertainty. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 9(4), 289-312.
Hockerts, K., & Wüstenhagen, R. (2010). Greening Goliaths versus emerging Davids—Theorizing about the role of incumbents and new entrants in sustainable entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Venturing, 25(5), 481-492.
Huizingh, E.K. (2011). Open innovation: State of the art and future perspectives. Technovation, 31(1), 2-9.
Hull, C.E., Caisy Hung, Y.-T., Hair, N., Perotti, V., & DeMartino, R. (2007). Taking advantage of digital opportunities: a typology of digital entrepreneurship. International Journal of Networking and Virtual Organisations 4(3), 290-303.
Hulland, J. (1999). Use of partial least squares (PLS) in strategic management research: a review of four recent studies. Strategic Management Journal, 20(2), 195-204.
Jamali, D., & Mirshak, R. (2007). Corporate social responsibility (CSR): Theory and practice in
a developing country context. Journal of Business Ethics, 72(3), 243-262.
Jamshed Raza, A.M. (2016). Perceptions and practices of corporate social responsibility among SMEs in Pakistan. Quality & Quantity, 50(6), 25.
Jasra, J., Hunjra, A.I., Rehman, A.U., Azam, R.I., & Khan, M.A. (2011). Determinants of business success of small and medium enterprises. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 2(20).
Jenkins, H. (2009). A ‘business opportunity’model of corporate social responsibility for small‐and medium‐sized enterprises. Business Ethics: A European Review, 18(1), 21-36.
Kamaludin, I.A.M.M.H., Saad, M.M., & Aziz, N.A. (2012). Sustainability-Driven Entrepreneurship: The Mediating Effect of Opportunity-Based Management Structure on the Relationship between Entrepreneurial Orientation and Environmental Sustainability Management of SMEs:
A Conceptual Framework. European Jounrla of Business and Management, 4(13), 148-156.
Katila, R., & Shane, S. (2005). When does lack of resources make new firms innovative? Academy of Management Journal, 48(5), 814-829.
Kiron, D., Kruschwitz, N., Reeves, M., & Goh, E. (2013). The benefits of sustainability-driven innovation. MIT Sloan Management Review, 54(2), 69.
Kirzner, I.M. (1997). Entrepreneurial discovery and the competitive market process: An Austrian approach. Journal of Economic Literature, 35(1), 60-85.
Koefoed, M., & Buckley, C. (2008). Clean technology transfer: a case study from the South African metal finishing industry, 2000-2005. Journal of Cleaner Production, 16(1), S78-S84.
Konar, S., & Cohen, M.A. (2001). Does the market value environmental performance? Review of Economics and Statistics, 83(2), 281-289.
Kraus, P., & Britzelmaier, B. (2012). Corporate sustainability management: Evidence from Germany. Journal of Global Responsibility, 3(2), 248-262.
Kuratko, D.F., Hornsby, J.S., & Covin, J.G. (2014). Diagnosing a firm's internal environment for corporate entrepreneurship. Business Horizons, 57(1), 37-47.
Kwarteng, A., Dadzie, S.A., & Famiyeh, S. (2016). Sustainability and competitive advantage from
a developing economy. Journal of Global Responsibility, 7(1), 110-125.
Larson, A.L. (2000). Sustainable innovation through an entrepreneurship lens. Business Strategy and the Environment, 9(5), 304-317.
Lee, M., Yun, J., Pyka, A., Won, D., Kodama, F., Schiuma, G., … Jung, K. (2018). How to respond to the Fourth Industrial Revolution, or the Second Information Technology Revolution? Dynamic new combinations between technology, market, and society through open innovation. Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity, 4(3), 21.
Leskovar-Spacapan, G., & Bastic, M. (2007). Differences in organizations’ innovation capability in transition economy: Internal aspect of the organizations’ strategic orientation. Technovation, 27(9), 533-546.
Ligthelm, A. (2010). Entrepreneurship and small business sustainability. Southern African Business Review, 14(3).
Liu, S., Kasturiratne, D., & Moizer, J. (2012). A hub-and-spoke model for multi-dimensional integration of green marketing and sustainable supply chain management. Industrial Marketing Management, 41(4), 581-588.
Luken, R., & Van Rompaey, F. (2008). Drivers for and barriers to environmentally sound technology adoption by manufacturing plants in nine developing countries. Journal of Cleaner Production, 16(1), S67-S77.
Maignan, I., & Ferrell, O. (2000). Measuring corporate citizenship in two countries: The case of the United States and France. Journal of Business Ethics, 23(3), 283-297.
Matinaro, V., Liu, Y., Lee, T.-R., & Poesche, J. (2019). Extracting key factors for sustainable development of enterprises: Case study of SMEs in Taiwan. Journal of Cleaner Production, 209, 1152-1169. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.10.280
Meijer, L.L.J., Huijben, J.C.C.M., van Boxstael, A., & Romme, A.G.L. (2019). Barriers and drivers for technology commercialization by SMEs in the Dutch sustainable energy sector. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 112, 114-126. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2019.05.050
Melville, N.P. (2010). Information systems innovation for environmental sustainability. MIS Quarterly, 34(1), 1-21.
Montalvo, C. (2008). General wisdom concerning the factors affecting the adoption of cleaner technologies: a survey 1990-2007. Journal of Cleaner Production, 16(1), S7-S13.
Montalvo, C. (2012). The Role of Markets, Policy and Regulation on Innovation e Horizontal Analysis in Nine Sectors. Report for the Europe INNOVA Innovation Watch. European Commission DG Enterprise and Industry. Brussels.
Montalvo, C., & Moghayer, S. (2011). State of an innovation system: theoretical and empirical advance towards an innovation efficiency index (Working Papers MPRA No. 38002 ). Retrived from https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/38002/1/MPRA_paper_38002.pdf
Muñoz, P., & Dimov, D. (2015). The call of the whole in understanding the development of sustainable ventures. Journal of Business Venturing, 30(4), 632-654.
Ndubisi, N.O., Dayan, M., Yeniaras, V., & Al-hawari, M. (2019). The effects of complementarity of knowledge and capabilities on joint innovation capabilities and service innovation: The role of competitive intensity and demand uncertainty. Industrial Marketing Management. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indmarman.2019.05.011
Niaki, M.K., Torabi, S. A., & Nonino, F. (2019). Why manufacturers adopt additive manufacturing technologies: The role of sustainability. Journal of Cleaner Production, 222, 381-392. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.03.019
Nicholls, A., & Opal, C. (2005). Fair trade: Market-driven ethical consumption.London: Sage.
Parker, C.M., Redmond, J., & Simpson, M. (2009). A review of interventions to encourage SMEs to make environmental improvements. Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, 27(2), 279-301.
Patzelt, H., & Shepherd, D.A. (2011a). Negative emotions of an entrepreneurial career: Self-employment and regulatory coping behaviors. Journal of Business Venturing, 26(2), 226-238.
Patzelt, H., & Shepherd, D.A. (2011b). Recognizing opportunities for sustainable development. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 35(4), 631-652.
Petti, C., & Zhang, S. (2013). Technological entrepreneurship and absorptive capacity in Guangdong technology firms. Measuring Business Excellence, 17(2), 61-71.
Porter, M.E., & Kramer, M.R. (2019). Creating shared value. In G.G. Lenssen & N.C. Smith (eds.), Managing sustainable business (pp. 323-346). Berlin: Springer.
Pusavec, F., Krajnik, P., & Kopac, J. (2010). Transitioning to sustainable production – Part I: application on machining technologies. Journal of Cleaner Production, 18(2), 174-184.
Qureshi, J.A. (2012). The Role of small and Medium-Size Enterprises in socio-Economic Sustainability in Pakistan Global Journal of Management And Business Research, 12(19), 15.
Radas, S., & Božić, L. (2009). The antecedents of SME innovativeness in an emerging transition economy. Technovation, 29(6-7), 438-450.
Raderbauer, M. (2011). The importance of sustainable business practices in the viennese accommodation industry. Unpublished master dissertation. University of Exeter.
Radziwon, A., & Bogers, M. (2018). Open innovation in SMEs: Exploring inter-organizational relationships in an ecosystem. Technological Forecasting and Social Change. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2018.04.021
Raymond, L., Bergeron, F., Croteau, A.-M., & St-Pierre, J. (2015). Entrepreneurial orientation and e-business capabilities of manufacturing SMEs: an absorptive capacity lens. Paper presented at the 2015 48th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences.
Raza, J., & Majid, A. (2016). Perceptions and practices of corporate social responsibility among SMEs in Pakistan. Quality & Quantity, 50(6), 2625-2650.
Rehman, N.U. (2016). Network alliances and firms’ performance: a panel data analysis of Pakistani SMEs. Eurasian Business Review, 6(1), 37-52.
Ringle, C.M., Wende, S., & Becker, J.-M. (2017). SmartPLS-3. SmartPLS GmbH, Boenningstedt.
Roberts, P.W. (1999). Product innovation, product-market competition and persistent profitability in the US pharmaceutical industry. Strategic Management Journal, 20(7), 655-670.
Sangle, S. (2011). Adoption of cleaner technology for climate proactivity: a technology-firm-stakeholder framework. Business Strategy and the Environment, 20(6), 365-378.
Sarasvathy, S.D., & Venkataraman, S. (2011). Entrepreneurship as method: Open questions for an entrepreneurial future. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 35(1), 113-135.
Satapathy, S.K., Sangle, S., & Unnikrishnan, S. (2017). Role of government towards adoption of cleaner technologies for climate proactivity: A survey-based empirical study of Indian firms. World Journal of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, 14(1), 29-49.
Scheepers, M., Hough, J., & Bloom, J. (2007). Entrepreneurial intensity: A comparative analysis of established companies in South Africa. South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences, 10(2), 238-255.
Schmidt, S., Müller, F.C., Ibert, O., & Brinks, V. (2018). Open region: Creating and exploiting opportunities for innovation at the regional scale. European Urban and Regional Studies, 25(2), 187-205.
Schumpeter, J.A. (1942). Socialism, capitalism and democracy. New York: Harper and Brothers.
Schumpeter, J.A., & Fels, R. (1939). Business cycles: a theoretical, historical, and statistical analysis of the capitalist process (Vol. 2). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Shane, S., & Venkataraman, S. (2000). The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research. Academy of Management Review, 25(1), 217-226.
Shane, S., & Venkataraman, S. (2003). Guest editors’ introduction to the special issue on technology entrepreneurship. Research Policy, 32(2), 181-184.
Short, J.C., Ketchen Jr, D.J., Shook, C.L., & Ireland, R.D. (2010). The concept of “opportunity” in entrepreneurship research: Past accomplishments and future challenges. Journal of Management, 36(1), 40-65.
Singh, M., Brueckner, M., & Padhy, P.K. (2015). Environmental management system ISO 14001: effective waste minimisation in small and medium enterprises in India. Journal of Cleaner Production, 102, 285-301.
Singh, S.H., Bhowmick, B., Eesley, D., & Sindhav, B. (2019). Grassroots innovation and entrepreneurial success: Is entrepreneurial orientation a missing link? Technological Forecasting and Social Change. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2019.02.002
Song, M., & Wang, S. (2018). Market competition, green technology progress and comparative advantages in China. Management Decision, 56(1), 188-203.
Srinivasan, R., Lilien, G.L., & Rangaswamy, A. (2002). Technological opportunism and radical technology adoption: An application to e-business. Journal of Marketing, 66(3), 47-60.
Stevenson, H.H. (1983). A perspective on entrepreneurship (Vol. 13). Harvard: Harvard Business School Cambridge, MA.
Stevenson, H.H., & Carlos Jarrillo-Mossi, J. (1986). Preserving entrepreneurship as companies grow. Journal of Business Strategy, 7(1), 10-23.
Stevenson, H.H., & Jarillo, J.C. (2007). A paradigm of entrepreneurship: Entrepreneurial management. In Á. Cuervo, D. Ribeiro, & S. Roig (eds.), Entrepreneurship. Concepts, Theory and Perspective (pp. 155-170). Berlin: Springer.
Todeschini, B.V., Cortimiglia, M.N., Callegaro-de-Menezes, D., & Ghezzi, A. (2017). Innovative and sustainable business models in the fashion industry: Entrepreneurial drivers, opportunities, and challenges. Business Horizons, 60(6), 759-770. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bushor.2017.07.003
Tukker, A. (2000). Life cycle assessment as a tool in environmental impact assessment. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 20(4), 435-456.
Turker, D. (2009). Measuring corporate social responsibility: A scale development study. Journal of Business Ethics, 85(4), 411-427.
Vazquez-Brust, D., Smith, A.M., & Sarkis, J. (2014). Managing the transition to critical green growth: The ‘Green Growth State’. Futures, 64, 38-50.
Velte, P., & Stawinoga, M. (2017). Empirical research on corporate social responsibility assurance (CSRA): A literature review. Journal of Business Economics, 87(8), 1017-1066.
Venkataraman, S., & Sarasvathy, S.D. (2001). Strategy and entrepreneurship: Outlines of an untold story. SSRN Electronic Journal. https://doi.org/ 10.2139/ssrn.275186
Venkatraman, S., & Nayak, R.R. (2015). Corporate sustainability: An IS approach for integrating triple bottom line elements. Social Responsibility Journal, 11(3), 482-501.
Vollebergh, H.R., & Van der Werf, E. (2014). The role of standards in eco-innovation: Lessons for policymakers. Review of Environmental Economics and Policy, 8(2), 230-248.
Wagner, M., & Llerena, P. (2011). Eco-innovation through integration, regulation and cooperation: comparative insights from case studies in three manufacturing sectors. Industry and Innovation, 18(8), 747-764.
Walker, H., & Preuss, L. (2008). Fostering sustainability through sourcing from small businesses: public sector perspectives. Journal of Cleaner Production, 16(15), 1600-1609.
WCED, S.W.S. (1987). World commission on environment and development. Our common future. New York: Oxford University Press
Wernerfelt, B. (1984). A resource‐based view of the firm. Strategic Management Journal, 5(2), 171-180.
White, P. (2009). Building a sustainability strategy into the business. Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, 9(4), 386-394.
Yoon, B., & Magee, C.L. (2018). Exploring technology opportunities by visualizing patent information based on generative topographic mapping and link prediction. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 132, 105-117.
Zahra, S.A. (2015). Corporate entrepreneurship as knowledge creation and conversion: The role of entrepreneurial hubs. Small Business Economics, 44(4), 727-735.
Zhang, C., & Dhaliwal, J. (2009). An investigation of resource-based and institutional theoretic factors in technology adoption for operations and supply chain management. International Journal of Production Economics, 120(1), 252-269.
Zhao, F. (2005). Exploring the synergy between entrepreneurship and innovation. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 11(1), 25-41.
Żur, A. (2015). Opportunity Identification and Creation as Factors of Firm Internationalisation. Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, 3(2), 25-39. https://doi.org/10.15678/EBER.2015.030203
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a CC BY-ND licence that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are asked to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) only the final version of the article, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access). We advise using any of the following research society portals: