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Women and female entrepreneurship: Past, present, and future trends in developing countries



Objective: This article provides an understanding of the knowledge structure based on the publications on women’s entrepreneurship in developing and emerging countries based on bibliometric analysis. Women entrepreneurs play a pivotal role in economic and social development.

Research Design & Methods: By analysing citations, co-citations, and co-words, this study unveiled the most significant publications in the study context, link their knowledge structure, and map future research direction based on the two analyses, respectively. From the Web of Science (WoS), 208 journal publications were obtained.

Findings: Four themes were discovered in the co-citation analysis: 1) differences between men and women entrepreneurs, 2) the development of women’s entrepreneurship, 3) challenges among women entrepreneurs in developing countries, and 4) progress in women’s entrepreneurship studies. Subsequently, four themes were discovered in the co-word analysis: 1) innovation in women’s entrepreneurship, 2) women’s entrepreneurship performance, 3) empowerment of women entrepreneurs, and 4) self-employment and assistance to women entrepreneurs.

Implications & Recommendations: Theoretical and practical implications are presented by enhancing and developing women’s entrepreneurship participation in developing countries.

Contribution & Value Added: This review provides a comprehensive knowledge structure based on the past, present, and future trends in women’s entrepreneurship in developing countries.


women’s entrepreneurship;, developing countries, emerging countries, bibliometric analysis, gender equality


Author Biography

Muhammad Ashraf Fauzi

Muhammad Ashraf Fauzi is Senior Lecturer at the Faculty of Industrial Management, Universiti Malaysia Pahang. He completed his PhD at the Faculty of Management in 2018, Multimedia University. He has more than 10 years of academic experience, where he worked for nine years at the Centre for Foundation Studies, IIUM. His research interests include knowledge management, organisational behaviour, marketing, leadership, entrepreneurship, quality management, and project management. He published nearly 15 articles in top-tier journals. He holds Master’s degree in Manufacturing System Engineering (2013, Universiti Putra Malaysia) and a Bachelor degree in Manufacturing Engineering (2010, International Islamic University Malaysia).

Correspondence to: Muhammad Ashraf Fauzi, PhD, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Faculty of Industrial Management, Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300, Kuantan Pahang, Malaysia e-mail:


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