Green entrepreneurship intention in university students: The case of Peru


Abstract

Objective: The aim is to better understand how education supports green entrepreneurship among students by analyzing their education development support, institutional support, country support, and entrepreneurial self-efficacy.

Research Design & Methods: A total of 320 international business students in Peru filled the online survey. Eight questions focused on demographic information, and twenty-six questions evaluated the green entrepreneurship intention of students. We used the SEM-PLS technical analysis.

Findings: We found that education development support (EDS; 0.146), institutional support (IS; 0.183), and country support (CS; 0.158) had a positive influence on entrepreneurial self-efficacy (ESE), while ESE had a positive influence (0.757) on the green entrepreneurial intention (GEI). The model explained 57.3% of the green entrepreneurial intention. Findings of the bootstrapping test showed that the path coefficients were significant.

Implications & Recommendations: This study showed the impact of education development support, institutional support, and country support on entrepreneurs’ ability to successfully carry out green entrepreneurship, which will serve universities to implement strategic plans to achieve their ecological ventures and develop such ventures on campus with the students that have the necessary skills.

Contribution & Value Added: The research findings will prove helpful to governments in establishing new norms to promote entrepreneurship. The novelty of the current study is supported in using the PLS-SEM technique.

       

Keywords

Green entrepreneurship intention; international business students; COVID-19; Peru

Alvarez-Risco, A., Del-Aguila-Arcentales, S., & Diaz-Risco, S. (2018). Pharmacovigilance as a tool for sustainable development of healthcare in Peru. PharmacoVigilance Review, 10(2), 4-6.

Alvarez-Risco, A., Del-Aguila-Arcentales, S., Rosen, M. A., García-Ibarra, V., Maycotte-Felkel, S., & Martínez-Toro, G. M. (2021). Expectations and Interests of University Students in COVID-19 Times about Sustainable Development Goals: Evidence from Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, and Peru. Sustainability, 13(6). https://doi.org/10.3390/su13063306

Alvarez-Risco, A., Estrada-Merino, A., Anderson-Seminario, M. d. l. M., Mlodzianowska, S., García-Ibarra, V., Villagomez-Buele, C., & Carvache-Franco, M. (2020). Multitasking behavior in online classrooms and academic performance: case of university students in Ecuador during COVID-19 outbreak. Interactive Technology and Smart Education, ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print). https://doi.org/10.1108/ITSE-08-2020-0160

Alvarez-Risco, A., Estrada-Merino, A., & Perez-Luyo, R. (2020). Sustainable Development Goals in Hospitality Management. In H. Ruël & A. Lombarts (Eds.), Sustainable Hospitality Management (Vol. 24, pp. 159-178). Bingley: Emerald Publishing Limited.

Alvarez-Risco, A., Mejia, C. R., Delgado-Zegarra, J., Del-Aguila-Arcentales, S., Arce-Esquivel, A. A., Valladares-Garrido, M. J., ... Yáñez, J. A. (2020). The Peru Approach against the COVID-19 Infodemic: Insights and Strategies. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 103(2), 583-586. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.20-0536

Ashraf, B. N. (2020). Economic impact of government interventions during the COVID-19 pandemic: International evidence from financial markets. Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Finance, 27, 100371. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbef.2020.100371

Bandura, A. (1992). Self-efficacy mechanism in psychobiologic functioning. In Self-efficacy: Thought control of action. (pp. 355-394). Washington, DC, US: Hemisphere Publishing Corp.

Banschbach, V. S., & Letovsky, R. (2011). Teaming environmental biology and business administration seniors on “green” enterprise plans at Saint Michael’s College, Vermont. Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences, 1(3), 215-222. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13412-011-0036-x

Bergmann, H., Geissler, M., Hundt, C., & Grave, B. (2018). The climate for entrepreneurship at higher education institutions. Research Policy, 47(4), 700-716. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2018.01.018

Bird, B. (1988). Implementing Entrepreneurial Ideas: The Case for Intention. Academy of Management Review, 13(3), 442-453. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1988.4306970

Bonnet, H., Quist, J., Hoogwater, D., Spaans, J., & Wehrmann, C. (2006). Teaching sustainable entrepreneurship to engineering students: the case of Delft University of Technology. International Journal of Phytoremediation, 31(2), 155-167. https://doi.org/10.1080/03043790600566979

Burnette, J. L., Pollack, J. M., Forsyth, R. B., Hoyt, C. L., Babij, A. D., Thomas, F. N., & Coy, A. E. (2019). A Growth Mindset Intervention: Enhancing Students’ Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy and Career Development. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 44(5), 878-908. https://doi.org/10.1177/1042258719864293

Cadenas, G. A., Cantú, E. A., Lynn, N., Spence, T., & Ruth, A. (2020). A programmatic intervention to promote entrepreneurial self-efficacy, critical behavior, and technology readiness among underrepresented college students. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 116, 103350. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2019.103350

Campelo Rodríguez, M. P. (2013). Rural development and entrepreneurship: The entrepreneurial potential of students of agricultural engineering of the University of Leon in Spain. Ilu, 18, 717-731. https://doi.org/10.5209/rev_HICS.2013.v18.44361

Chen, X., Zhang, S. X., Jahanshahi, A. A., Alvarez-Risco, A., Dai, H., Li, J., & Ibarra, V. G. (2020). Belief in a COVID-19 Conspiracy Theory as a Predictor of Mental Health and Well-Being of Health Care Workers in Ecuador: Cross-Sectional Survey Study. JMIR Public Health Surveill, 6(3), e20737. https://doi.org/10.2196/20737

Chrisman, J. J., Hynes, T., & Fraser, S. (1995). Faculty entrepreneurship and economic development: The case of the University of Calgary. Journal of Business Venturing, 10(4), 267-281. https://doi.org/10.1016/0883-9026(95)00015-Z

Dill, D. D. (1995). University-industry entrepreneurship: The organization and management of American university technology transfer units. Higher Education, 29(4), 369-384. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01383958

Elnadi, M., & Gheith, M. H. (2021). Entrepreneurial ecosystem, entrepreneurial self-efficacy, and entrepreneurial intention in higher education: Evidence from Saudi Arabia. The International Journal of Management Education, 100458. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.ijme.2021.100458

Eyo, S. J. (2014). Japan’s bioventures: Past, present and future. International Journal of Innovation and Technology Management, 11(5). https://doi.org/10.1142/S021987701450031X

Ferreira, A. d. S. M., Loiola, E., & Guedes Gondim, S. M. (2017). Motivations, business planning, and risk management: Entrepreneurship among university students. INMR – Innovation & Management Review, 14(2), 140-150.

Fichter, K., & Tiemann, I. (2018). Factors influencing university support for sustainable entrepreneurship: Insights from explorative case studies. Journal of Cleaner Production, 175, 512-524. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.12.031

Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, attitude, intention and behavior: An introduction to theory and research. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39-50. https://doi.org/10.1177/002224378101800104

Futagami, S., & Helms, M. M. (2009). Emerging female entrepreneurship in Japan: A case study of Digimom workers. Thunderbird International Business Review, 51(1), 71-85. https://doi.org/10.1002/tie.20216

Harvard. (2021). Think Tank Search. Retrieved from https://guides.library.harvard.edu/hks/think_tank_search on 19 June 2021

Hay, D. R. (1981). A Canadian university experience in technological innovation and entrepreneurship. Technovation, 1(1), 43-55. https://doi.org/10.1016/0166-4972(81)90006-7

Hills, G. E. (1988). Variations in University entrepreneurship education: An empirical study of an evolving field. Journal of Business Venturing, 3(2), 109-122. https://doi.org/10.1016/0883-9026(88)90021-3

Hopkins, T., & Feldman, H. (1989). Changing Entrepreneurship Education: Finding the Right Entrepreneur for the Job. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 2(3), 28-40. https://doi.org/10.1108/09534818910145066

Huu-Phuong, T., & Soo-Jiuan, T. (1990). Export Factoring: A Strategic Alternative for Small Exporters in Singapore. International Small Business Journal, 8(3), 49-57. https://doi.org/10.1177/026624269000800304

Johannisson, B. (1991). University training for entrepreneurship: Swedish approaches. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 3(1), 67-82. https://doi.org/10.1080/08985629100000005

Klofsten, M., & Jones-Evans, D. (2000). Comparing Academic Entrepreneurship in Europe -The Case of Sweden and Ireland. Small Business Economics, 14(4), 299-309. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1008184601282

Krueger, N. F., Reilly, M. D., & Carsrud, A. L. (2000). Competing models of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Business Venturing, 15(5), 411-432. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0883-9026(98)00033-0

Kumar, R., & Shukla, S. (2019). Creativity, Proactive Personality and Entrepreneurial Intentions: Examining the Mediating Role of Entrepreneurial Self-efficacy. Global Business Review, 0972150919844395. https://doi.org/10.1177/0972150919844395

Laing, T. (2020). The economic impact of the Coronavirus 2019 (Covid-2019): Implications for the mining industry. The Extractive Industries and Society, 7(2), 580-582. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exis.2020.04.003

Lamont, L. M. (1972). Entrepreneurship, technology, and the university. R&D Management, 2(3), 119-123. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9310.1972.tb00977.x

Li, C., Murad, M., Shahzad, F., Khan, M. A. S., Ashraf, S. F., & Dogbe, C. S. K. (2020). Entrepreneurial Passion to Entrepreneurial Behavior: Role of Entrepreneurial Alertness, Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy and Proactive Personality. Frontiers in psychology, 11, 1611-1611. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01611

Liguori, E., & Winkler, C. (2020). From Offline to Online: Challenges and Opportunities for Entrepreneurship Education Following the COVID-19 Pandemic. Entrepreneurship Education and Pedagogy, 3(4), 346-351. https://doi.org/10.1177/2515127420916738

Liñán, F., & Chen, Y. W. (2009). Development and Cross–Cultural Application of a Specific Instrument to Measure Entrepreneurial Intentions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 33(3), 593-617. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6520.2009.00318.x

Lopez-Odar, D., Alvarez-Risco, A., Vara-Horna, A., Chafloque-Cespedes, R., & Sekar, M. C. (2020). Validity and reliability of the questionnaire that evaluates factors associated with perceived environmental behavior and perceived ecological purchasing behavior in Peruvian consumers. Social Responsibility Journal, 16(3), 403-417. https://doi.org/10.1108/SRJ-08-2018-0201

McMullan, W. E., Long, W. A., & Graham, J. B. (1986). Assessing economic value added by university-based new-venture outreach programs. Journal of Business Venturing, 1(2), 225-240. https://doi.org/10.1016/0883-9026(86)90016-9

Mei, H., Ma, Z., Jiao, S., Chen, X., Lv, X., & Zhan, Z. (2017). The Sustainable Personality in Entrepreneurship: The Relationship between Big Six Personality, Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy, and Entrepreneurial Intention in the Chinese Context. Sustainability, 9(9), 1649.

Melbourne, U. o. (2021). Master of Entrepreneurship.

Memon, M., Soomro Bahadur, A., & Shah, N. (2019). Enablers of entrepreneurial self-efficacy in a developing country. Education + Training, 61(6), 684-699. https://doi.org/10.1108/ET-10-2018-0226

Meoli, A., Fini, R., Sobrero, M., & Wiklund, J. (2020). How entrepreneurial intentions influence entrepreneurial career choices: The moderating influence of social context. Journal of Business Venturing, 35(3), 105982. https://doi:.org/10.1016/j.jbusvent.2019.105982

Moriano, J. A. (2005 ). El perfil psicosocial del emprendedor [The psychosocial profile of the entrepreneur]. Madrid: Consejo Económico y Social.

Mozahem, N. A., & Adlouni, R. O. (2020). Using Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy as an Indirect Measure of Entrepreneurial Education. The International Journal of Management Education, 100385. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijme.2020.100385

Neneh, B. N. (2019). From entrepreneurial intentions to behavior: The role of anticipated regret and proactive personality. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 112, 311-324. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2019.04.005

Newman, A., Obschonka, M., Schwarz, S., Cohen, M., & Nielsen, I. (2019). Entrepreneurial self-efficacy: A systematic review of the literature on its theoretical foundations, measurement, antecedents, and outcomes, and an agenda for future research. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 110, 403-419. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2018.05.012

Nguyen, T. T. (2020). The impact of access to finance and environmental factors on entrepreneurial intention: The mediator role of entrepreneurial behavioural control. Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, 8(2), 127-140. https://doi.org/10.15678/EBER.2020.080207

Nowiński, W., Haddoud, M. Y., Wach, K., & Schaefer, R. (2020). Perceived public support and entrepreneurship attitudes: A little reciprocity can go a long way! Journal of Vocational Behavior, 121, 103474. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2020.103474

Nuringsih, K., & Puspitowati, I. (2017). Determinants of eco entrepreneurial intention among students: Study in the entrepreneurial education practices. Advanced Science Letters, 23(8), 7281-7284. https://doi.org/10.1166/asl.2017.9351

Opara, U. L. (2013). Perspective: The role of universities in transforming African agriculture for economic development – Producing knowledge farmers and entrepreneurial leaders. International Journal of Postharvest Technology and Innovation, 3(2), 207-215. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJPTI.2013.055853

Oxford, U. o. (2021). Think Tanks.

Quispe-Cañari, J. F., Fidel-Rosales, E., Manrique, D., Mascaró-Zan, J., Huamán-Castillón, K. M., Chamorro–Espinoza, S. E., ... Mejia, C. R. (2021). Self-medication practices during the COVID-19 pandemic among the adult population in Peru: A cross-sectional survey. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, 29(1), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsps.2020.12.001

Rauch, A., & Hulsink, W. (2015). Putting Entrepreneurship Education Where the Intention to Act Lies: An Investigation Into the Impact of Entrepreneurship Education on Entrepreneurial Behavior. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 14(2), 187-204. https://doi.org/10.5465/amle.2012.0293

Ringle, C. M., Wende, S., & Becker, J. M. (2015). SmartPLS 3. Boenningstedt: SmartPLS GmbH.

Santos Susana, C., & Liguori Eric, W. (2019). Entrepreneurial self-efficacy and intentions: Outcome expectations as mediator and subjective norms as moderator. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 26(3), 400-415. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJEBR-07-2019-0436

School, A. B. (2021). Entrepreneurship.

Segal, N. S. (1986). Universities and technological entrepreneurship in Britain: Some implications of the Cambridge phenomenon. Technovation, 4(3), 189-204. https://doi.org/10.1016/0166-4972(86)90012-X

Shahab, Y., Chengang, Y., Arbizu Angel, D., & Haider Muhammad, J. (2019). Entrepreneurial self-efficacy and intention: do entrepreneurial creativity and education matter? International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 25(2), 259-280. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJEBR-12-2017-0522

Shi, L., Yao, X., & Wu, W. (2019). Perceived university support, entrepreneurial self-efficacy, heterogeneous entrepreneurial intentions in entrepreneurship education: The moderating role of the Chinese sense of face. Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, 12(2), 205-230. https://doi.org/10.1108/JEEE-04-2019-0040

Soomro, B. A., Ghumro, I. A., & Shah, N. (2020). Green entrepreneurship inclination among the younger generation: An avenue towards a green economy. Sustainable Development, 28(4), 585-594. https://doi.org/10.1002/sd.2010

Soria-Barreto, K., Zúñiga-Jara, S., & Ruiz Campo, S. (2016). Determinantes de la intención emprendedora: nueva evidencia. Interciencia, 41(5), 325-329.

Tajvidi, R., & Tajvidi, M. (2020). The growth of cyber entrepreneurship in the food industry: virtual community engagement in the COVID-19 era. British Food Journal.

Tamkivi, R. (1999). Support Structures for Innovation and Research-Based Entrepreneurship in Estonia. Industry and Higher Education, 13(1), 46-53. https://doi.org/10.1177/095042229901300107

Udayanan, P. (2019). The role of self-efficacy and entrepreneurial self-efficacy on the entrepreneurial intentions of graduate students: A study among omani graduates. Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, 7(4), 7-20. https://doi.org/10.15678/EBER.2019.070401

van der Westhuizen, T., & Goyayi, M. J. (2019). The influence of technology on entrepreneurial self-efficacy development for online business startup in developing nations. The International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation, 21(3), 168-177. https://doi.org/10.1177/1465750319889224

Wardana, L. W., Narmaditya, B. S., Wibowo, A., Mahendra, A. M., Wibowo, N. A., Harwida, G., & Rohman, A. N. (2020). The impact of entrepreneurship education and students’ entrepreneurial mindset: the mediating role of attitude and self-efficacy. Heliyon, 6(9), e04922. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04922

Wegner, D., Thomas, E., Teixeira Eduardo, K., & Maehler Alisson, E. (2019). University entrepreneurial push strategy and students’ entrepreneurial intention. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 26(2), 307-325. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJEBR-10-2018-0648

WHO. (2021). WHO Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Dashboard. Retrieved from https://covid19.who.int/ on 19 June 2021

Yan, J., Kim, S., Zhang, S. X., Foo, M.-D., Alvarez-Risco, A., Del-Aguila-Arcentales, S., & Yáñez, J. A. (2021). Hospitality workers’ COVID-19 risk perception and depression: A contingent model based on transactional theory of stress model. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 95, 102935. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2021.102935

Yáñez, J. A., Afshar Jahanshahi, A., Alvarez-Risco, A., Li, J., & Zhang, S. X. (2020). Anxiety, Distress, and Turnover Intention of Healthcare Workers in Peru by Their Distance to the Epicenter during the COVID-19 Crisis. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 103(4), 1614-1620. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.20-0800

Yáñez, J. A., Alvarez-Risco, A., & Delgado-Zegarra, J. (2020). Covid-19 in Peru: from supervised walks for children to the first case of Kawasaki-like syndrome. BMJ, 369, m2418. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m2418

Zhang, S. X., Chen, J., Afshar Jahanshahi, A., Alvarez-Risco, A., Dai, H., Li, J., & Patty-Tito, R. M. (2021). Succumbing to the COVID-19 Pandemic—Healthcare Workers Not Satisfied and Intend to Leave Their Jobs. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-020-00418-6

Zhang, S. X., Sun, S., Afshar Jahanshahi, A., Alvarez-Risco, A., Ibarra, V. G., Li, J., & Patty-Tito, R. M. (2020). Developing and testing a measure of COVID-19 organizational support of healthcare workers – results from Peru, Ecuador, and Bolivia. Psychiatry Research, 291, 113174. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113174


Published : 2021-11-19


Alvarez-Risco, A., Mlodzianowska, S., Zamora-Ramos, U., & Del-Aguila-Arcentales, S. (2021). Green entrepreneurship intention in university students: The case of Peru. Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, 9(4), 85-100. https://doi.org/10.15678/EBER.2021.090406

Aldo Alvarez-Risco  aralvare@ulima.edu.pe
Universidad de Lima  Peru
http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0786-6555
Sabina Mlodzianowska 
Universidad de Lima  Peru
http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9649-2024
Ulises Zamora-Ramos 
Universidad ESAN  Peru
http://orcid.org/0000-0001-8937-5076
Shyla Del-Aguila-Arcentales 
Escuela Nacional de Marina Mercante "Almirante Miguel Grau"  Peru
http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9532-6462




Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:

  1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a CC BY-ND licence that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
  2. Authors are asked to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.

 Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) only the final version of the article, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access). We advise using any of the following research society portals: