Perception of patriotic entrepreneurship in Poland and Ukraine


Abstract

Objective: The article aims to investigate how patriotic entrepreneurship is understood by Polish and Ukrainian entrepreneurs.

Research Design & Methods: Qualitative research was carried out as part of the research conducted on the opportunities presented by the development of patriotic entrepreneurship. As part of the qualitative research, in-depth individual inter-views were conducted with ten entrepreneurs doing business in Poland and Ukraine.

Findings: The results showed that the concept of patriotic entrepreneurship was positively evaluated by the entrepreneurs and should be expressed in greater entrepreneurial independence. In their answers, the entrepreneurs paid attention to the need to ‘humanise’ entrepreneurship. They also showed understanding and strong support for consumer ethnocentrism, which is one of the dimensions of patriotic entrepreneurship. Patriotic entrepreneurship is also determined by preferences as to where a business is conducted. Respondents also indicated that the best place to do business was their own country of origin, empowering their own business, which increases independence from international consortia.

Implications & Recommendations: Patriotic entrepreneurship can be one of the important motivations for consumer, managerial, and employee actions.

Contribution & Value Added: The study was exploratory in nature. Due to the very scarce literature in the field of patriotic entrepreneur-ship, it will serve as a basis for future research in the mentioned area. By systematising the knowledge in this area, it will be possible to better prepare future research projects in this area.

       

Keywords

patriotism, nationalism, patriotic entrepreneurship, economic entrepreneurship, consumer ethnocentrism;

Aggarwal, S. (2016). Economic Nationalism and Its Future Prospects: An Opinion. International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 1, 91-98.

Alesina, A. & La Ferrara, E. (2005), Ethnic diversity and economic performance. Journal of Economic Litera-ture, 43(3), 762-800.

Andėhn, M., Nordin, F., & Nillson, M.E. (2016). Facets of country image and brand equity: Revisiting the role of product categories in country-of-origin effect research. Journal Consumer Behaviour 15(3), 225-238. https://doi.org/10.1002/cb.1550

Andrews, S., Leblang, D. & Pandya, S. (2018). Ethnocentrism Reduces Foreign Direct Investment. The Journal of Politics. Retrieved from: https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1086/694916 on August 20, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1086/694916

Arasli, H. & Tumer, M. (2008), Nepotism, favoritism and cronyism: A study of their effects on job stress and job satisfaction in the banking industry of north Cyprus. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 36(9), 1237-1250. https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.2008.36.9.1237

Aswathappa, K. (2021). Essentials of Business Environment. Mumbai: Himalaya Publishing House Pvt. Ltd.

Audi, R. (2009). Nationalism, Patriotism, and Cosmopolitanism in an Age of Globalization. The Journal of Ethics, 13(4), 365-381. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10892-009-9068-9

Auruskeviciene, V., Vianelli, D., & Reardon, J. (2012). Comparison of consumer ethnocentrism. Transfor-mations in Business & Economics, 11(2), 20-35.

Awdziej M., Wlodarek D. & Tkaczyk J. (2016). Are elderly consumer more ethnocentric? Attitudes towards Polish and ‘foreign’ food products. Journal of Economics and Management. 23(1), 91-107.

Balabanis, G., Diamantopoulos, A., Mueller, R. D. & Melewar, T. C. (2001). The Impact of Nationalism, Patri-otism and Internationalism on Consumer Ethnocentric Tendencies. Journal of International Business Studies, 32(1), 157-175.

Barnhart R. K. (ed.). (1995). Dictionary of Etymology. The Orgins and Development of over 25.000 English Words. London: Hodder and Stoughton.

Boccagni, P. (2011). Approaching External Voting in Ecuadorian Immigration to Italy. International Migration, 49(3), 76-98. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2435.2011.00691.x

Brubaker R. (2004). In the Name of the Nation: Reflections on Nationalism and Patriotism. Citizenship Stud-ies, 8(2), 115-127. https://doi.org/10.1080/1362102042000214705

Bryla, P. (2017). Consumer ethnocentrism on the organic food market in Poland. Marketing i Zarządzanie, 48, 11-20. https://doi.org/10.18276/miz.2017.48-01

Callaghan, H., & Lagneau-Ymonet, P. (2010). The phantom of Palais Brongniart economic patriotism and the Paris stock exchange (MPIfG Discussion Paper, No. 10/14). Cologne: Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies.

Callan, E. (2006). Love, Idolatry and Patriotism. Social Theory and Practice, 32(4), 525-546. https://doi.org/10.5840/soctheorpract200632430

Cheah, I. & Phau, I. (2015). Conceptualising consumer economic nationalistic tendencies: scale development and validation. The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research, 25(3), 313-331. https://doi.org/10.1080/13501763.2011.640788

Clift, B., & Woll, C. (2012a). Economic patriotism: reinventing control over open markets. Journal of European Public Policy, 19(3), 307-323. https://doi.org/10.1080/13501763.2011.638117

Clift, B., & Woll, C. (2012b). The Revival of Economic Patriotism. In G. Morgan R. & Whitley (Eds), Capitalisms and Capitalism in the Twenty-First Century (pp. 70-90). Oxford: Oxford University Press, https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199694761.001.0001

Clift, B. (2013). Economic Patriotism, the Clash of Capitalisms, and State Aid in the European Union. Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, 13(1), 101-117. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10842-012-0138-5

Commission Regulation (EU) No 1407/2013 of 18 December 2013 on the application of Articles 107 and 108 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union to de minimis aid Text with EEA relevance, Re-trieved from https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/PL/TXT/?uri=uriserv%3AOJ.L_.2013.352.01.0001.01.ENG, 7 December 2019. on August 20, 2021.

Crowther, J. (1998). Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English. Fifth Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Devkota, N., Paudel, U. R., & Bhandari, U. (2020). Does westernization influence the business culture of a touristic city?. Economics and Sociology, 13(4), 154-172. https://doi.org/10.14254/2071-789X.2020/13-4/10

Davidov, E. (2010). Nationalism and Constructive Patriotism: A Longitudinal Test of Comparability in 22 Countries with ISSP. International Journal of Public Opinion Research. 23(1), 88-103. https://doi.org/10.1093/ijpor/edq031

De Clercq, D., Narongsak, T., & Voronov, M. (2015). Explaining SME Engagement in Local Sourcing: The Roles of Location-Specific Resources and Patriotism. International Small Business Journal. 33(8), 929-50. https://doi.org/10.1177/0266242614540316

Draskovic, V., Jovovic, R., Streimikiene, D., & Bilan, S. (2020). Formal and Informal vs. Alternative Institutions. Montenegrin Journal of Economics, 16(2), 193-201. https://doi.org/10.14254/1800-5845/2020.16-2.15

Dowley, K. M., & Silver, B. D. (2000). Subnational and National Loyalty: Cross-national Comparisons. Interna-tional Journal of Public Opinion Research, 12(4), 357-371. https://doi.org/10.1093/ijpor/12.4.357

Drozdenko, R, & Jensen, M. (2009). Pricing strategy & practice: Translating country-of-origin effects into prices. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 18(5), 371-378. https://doi.org/10.1108/10610420910981855

England, E. (1985). A Small and Piercing Voice: The Sermons of Spencer W. Kimball. Brigham Young University Studies, 25(4), 77-108.

Erdogan, B. & Uzkurt, C. (2011). Effects of ethnocentrism tendency on consumers’ perception of product attutiudes for foreign and domestic products. Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, 17(4), 393-406. https://doi.org/10.1108/13527601011086595

Estrin, S., Mickiewicz, T., & Ute, S. (2016). Human capital in social and commercial entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Venturing, 31(4), 449-467. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusvent.2016.05.003

Fendt, J. & Sachs, W. (2007). Grounded Theory Method in Management Research: Users’ Perspectives. Or-ganizational Research Methods, 11(3), 430-455. https://doi.org/10.1177/1094428106297812

Fetahu, D. (2017). The Importance of Nepotym and Corruption Management in Institutions and the Econo-my of the Country. European Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, 2, 33-43. https://doi.org/10.26417/ejms.v6i2.p133-143

Fetzer, T. (2017). Patriotism and the Economy. In M. Sardoc (Ed), Handbook of Patriotism (pp. 141-157). Ber-lin: Springer, Cham.

Fröhlich, T. (2018). Exile, Modernity, and Cultural Patriotism. In G. Qiyong (Ed.), Confucian Philosophy and the Challenge of Modernity (pp. 61-100). Lejda: Brill. https://doi.org/10.1080/02549948.2019.1603480

Furman, J.L. Porter, M.E. & Stern, S. (2002), The Determinant of National Innovative Capacity. Research Good, L. K., & Huddleston, P. (1995). Ethnocentrism of Polish and Russian consumers: Are Feelings and Intentions Related. International Marketing Review, 12(5), 35-48.

Gawell, M. (2013), Social Entrepreneurship: Action Grounded in Needs, Opportunities and/or Perceived Necessities?. VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 24(4), 1071-1090.

Gibbs, D. (2009), Sustainability Entrepreneurs, Ecopreneurs and the Development of a Sustainable Economy. Greener Management International, 55, 62-78.

Greenfeld, L. (2011). The Globalization of Nationalism and the Future of the Nation-State. International Journal of Politics, Culture and Society, 24(1-2), 5-9. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10767-010-9110-8

Gurría, A. (2013), The missing entrepreneurs: Policies for Inclusive Entrepreneurship in Europe. OECD. OECD/The European Commission: OECD Publishing.

Hall, J. K., Daneke, G.A., & Lenox, M. J. (2010). Sustainable development and entrepreneurship: Past contri-butions and future directions. Journal of Business Venturing, 25(5), 439-448. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusvent.2010.01.002

Hammond, R.A., & Axelrod, R. (2006). The Evolution of Ethnocentrism. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 50(6), 926-936. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022002706293470

Hand, M. (2011). Should We Promote Patriotism in Schools? Political Studies, 59(2), 328-347. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9248.2010.00855.x

Härtel, H.H. (2006). The threat of economic patriotism, Intereconomics, 41(2), 58-59.

Haucap, J., Wey, Ch., & Barmbold, J. F. (1997). Location Choice as a Signal for Product Quality: The Econom-ics of “Made in Germany”, Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics (JITE) / Zeitschrift Für Die Gesamte Staatswissenschaft, 153(3), 510-31.

Helleiner, E. (2002). Economic Nationalism as a Challenge to Economic Liberalism? Lessons from the 19th Century, International Studies Quarterly, 46(3), 307-329. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-2478.00235

Hewstone M., Rubin, M., & Hazel, W. (2002). Intergroup Bias. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 575-604.

Hoffman, L. (2006). Autonomous choices and patriotic professionalism: on governmentality in late-socialist China. Economy and Society, 35(4), 550-570. https://doi.org/10.1080/03085140600960815

Horrocks, J.W. (1925). A Short History of Mercantilism (1st ed.). London: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315386065.

Huddleston, P., Good, L.K., & Stoel, L. (2001). Consumer ethnocentrism, product necessity and Polish con-sumers’ perceptions of quality. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 29(5), 236-246.

Huddy, L. & Khatib, N. (2007). American Patriotism, National Identity, and Political Involvement. Journal of Political Science, 51(1), 63-77. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5907.2007.00237.x

Ignatowski, G., Sułkowski, Ł., & Stopczyński, B. (2021). Risk of Increased Acceptance for Organizational Nepo-tism and Cronyism during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Risks, 9(4). https://doi.org/10.3390/risks9040059

Jones, R. G., & Stout, T. (2015). Policing Nepotism and Cronyism Without Losing the Value of Social Connec-tion. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 8, 2-12. https://doi.org/10.1017/iop.2014.3

Kaca P. (2020). Przedsiębiorczość a nowoczesny patriotyzm, In J. Zimny, (Ed.) Patriotyzm, wczoraj – dziś – jutro (pp. 212-223), Stalowa Wola: Akademia Wojsk Lądowych imienia generała Tadeusza Kościuszki we Wrocławiu,.

Keles, H.N., Ozkan, T.K., & Bezirci, M. (2011). A Study On The Effects Of Nepotism, Favoritism And Cronyism On Organizational Trust In The Auditing Process In Family Businesses In Turkey. International Business and Economics Research Journal, 10(9), 9-16. https://doi.org/10.19030/iber.v10i9.5622

Keller, S. (2005). Patriotism as Bad Faith. Ethics, 115(3), 563-592. https://doi.org/10.1086/428458

Kregel, J. (2019). Globalization, Nationalism, and Clearing Systems. Review of Keynesian Studies, 1, 1-21. https://doi.org/10.34490/revkeystud.1.0_1

Krzemień, R. (2019). Patriotyzm ekonomiczny – droga do wzmocnienia gospodarki czy droga donikąd? Civitas Hominibus, 14. 63-75. https://doi.org/10.25312/2391-5145.14/2019_04rk

Krzywosz-Rynkiewicz, B., Zalewska, A. M. & Karakakatsani D. (2017), Does economic condition matter?: Citi-zenship activity of young people in countries with different economic status. Citizenship Teaching and Learning, 12(2), 151-169.

Lacroix, J. (2002). For a European Constitutional Patriotism. Political Studies, 50(5), 187-193.

Leadbeaster, Ch. & Goss, S. (1998), Civic entrepreneurship. London. Demos

Lekakis, E. J., (2017). Economic nationalism and the cultural politics of consumption under austerity: The rise of ethnocentric consumption in Greece. Journal of Consumer Culture, 17(2), 286-302. https://doi.org/10.1177/1469540515586872

Levi-Faur, D. (1997). Economic Nationalism: From Friedrich List to Robert Reich. Review of International Stud-ies, 23. 359-370. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0260210597003598.

Lippmann, S., & Aldrich, H.E. (2016). A rolling stone gathers momentum: Generational units, collective memory, and entrepreneurship. The Academy of Management Review, 41(4), 658-675. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.2014.0139

Livi, S., Leone, L., Falgares G., & Lombardo, F. (2014). Values, ideological attitudes and patriotism. Personality and Individual Differences, 64(8), 141-146. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2014.02.040

Lu Wang, C., & Xiong Chen, Z. (2004). Consumer ethnocentrism and willingness to buy domestic products in a developing country setting: testing moderating effects. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 21(6), 391-400. https://doi.org/10.1108/07363760410558663

Macedo, S. (2011). Just patriotism? Philosophy and Social Criticism, 37(4), 413-423. https://doi.org/10.1177/0191453711399842

Maison, D., Ardi, R., Yulianto, J.E., & Rembulan, C.L. (2018). How consumer ethnocentrism can predict con-sumer preferences – construction and validation of SCONET scale. Polish Psychological Bulletin, 49(3), 365-374. https://doi.org/10.24425/119504

Markell, P. (2000). Macing Affect for Democracy? On ”Constitutional Patriotism”. Political Theory, 28(1), 38-63.

Matušínská, K., & Zapletalová, Š. (2021). Rational and emotional aspects of consumer behaviour. Forum Scientiae Oeconomia, 9(2), 95-110. https://doi.org/10.23762/FSO_VOL9_NO2_5

Melegh A. (2006). On the east–west slope. Globalization, nationalism, racism and discourses on Eastern Eu-rope. Budapest, New York: Central European University Press.

Miscevic, N. (2020). Nationalism. In E. N. Zalta. (Ed.), Stanford Encyclopedia of 183 Philosophy, Metaphysics Research Lab.. Stanford:Stanford University. Retrieved from: https://plato.stanford.edu/on August 20, 2021.

Mishchuk, H., Yurchyk, H., & Bilan, Y. (2018). Shadow incomes and real inequality within the framework of leadership and social change. In Leadership for the Future Sustainable Development of Business and Education (pp. 89-101). Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-74216-8_10

Mizik, T., Gál, P., & Török, A. (2020). Does agricultural trade competitiveness matter? the case of the CIS countries. Agris on-Line Papers in Economics and Informatics, 12(1), 61-72. https://doi.org/10.7160/aol.2020.120106

Moreno-Luzón, J. (2007). Fighting for the National Memory. The Commemoration of the Spanish ‘War of Independence’ in 1908-1912”. History and Memory, 19(1), 68-94. https://doi.org/10.2979/his.2007.19.1.68

Morse, A., & Svive, S. (2011). Patriotism in Your Portfolio. Journal of Financial Markets, 14(2), 411-440.

Mummendey, A., Klink, A., & Brown, R. (2001). Nationalism and patriotism: National identification and out‐group rejection. British Journal of Social Psychology, 40(2), 159-172. https://doi.org/10.1348/014466601164740

Myšková, R., & Hájek, P. (2019). Relationship between corporate social responsibility in corporate annual reports and financial performance of the US companies. Journal of International Studies, 12(1), 269-282. https://doi.org/10.14254/2071-8330.2019/12-1/18

Naczyk, M. (2014). Budapest in Warsaw: Central European Business Elites and the Rise of Economic Patriot-ism Since the Crisis. SSRN Electronic Journal. Retrieved from: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2550496 on August 20, 2021. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2550496

Nguen, T.A.N., Nguen, K.M. (2021). The Shadow Economy, Institutional Quality And Public Debt: Evidence From Emerging And Developing Asian Economies. Montenegrin Journal Of Economics, 18(1), 205-214. https://doi.org/10.14254/1800-5845/2022.18-1.17

Nussbaum M.C. (2008). Towards a globally sensitive patriotism. Deadalus, 137(3), 78-93. https://doi.org/10.1162/daed.2008.137.3.78

Pacheco, D,F., Dean, T.J., & Payne, D.S. (2010). Escaping the green prison: Entrepreneurship and the creation of opportunities for sustainable development. Journal of Business Venturing, 25(5), 464-480. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusvent.2009.07.006

Papp, M., & Varju, M. (2019). The Crisis, Economic Patriotism in Central Europe and EU Law. In L. Antoniolli, L. Bonatti, & C. Ruzza (Eds.) Highs and Lows of European Integration (pp. 143-163). New York: Springer In-ternational Publishing.

Parker. Ch.S. (2010). Symbolic versus Blind Patriotism: Distinction without Difference?. Political Research Quarterly, 63(1), 97-114. https://doi.org/10.1177/1065912908327228

Pawlak, K., Smutka, L., & Kotyza, P. (2021). Agricultural potential of the eu countries: How far are they from the USA? Agriculture (Switzerland), 11(4). https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11040282

Pham, T.V. (2019). Indonesia Guided Economy: 1957-1965. In T.V. Pham, (Ed.), Beyond Political Skin (pp. 159-207). Singapore: Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

Poole R. (2008), Patriotism and nationalism. In Primoratz I., Pavcovic A. (Ed.) Patriotism. Philosophical and Political Perspectives. (pp. 129-146). Alderton: Ashgate.

Porter, M.E., (2008). On Competition. Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing.

Primoratz, I. (2000). Patriotism. In E.N. Zalta. (Ed.), Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Metaphysics Re-search Lab.. Stanford: Stanford University. Retrieved from: https://plato.stanford.edu/on August 20, 2021.

Pucci, T., Casprini, E., Rabino, S., & Zanni, L. (2017). Place branding-exploring knowledge and positioning choises across national boundaries. British Food Journal, 119(8), 1915-1932. https://doi.org/10.1108/BFJ-11-2016-0582

Rawwas, M., Rajendran, K.N., & Wuehrer, G.A. (1996). The influence of worldmindedness and nationalism on consumer evaluation of domestic and foreign products. International Marketing Review, 13(2), 20-41. https://doi.org/10.1108/02651339610115746

Ray, J.J., & Furnham, A. (1984). Authoritarianism, conservatism and racism. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 7(3), 406-412.

Reznikova, N., Panchenko, V., & Bulatova, O. (2018). The Policy Of Economic Nationalism: From Origins To New Variations Of Economic Patriotism. Baltic Journal of Economic Studies, 4(4), 274-281. https://doi.org/10.30525/2256-0742/2018-4-4-274-281

Rosamond, B. (2012). Supranational governance as economic patriotism? The European Union, legitimacy and the reconstruction of state space. Journal of European Public Policy, 19(3), 324-341. https://doi.org/10.1080/13501763.2011.638119

Rowe, P. A. & Christie, M. J. (2008). Civic entrepreneurship in Australia: Opening the “black box” of tacit knowledge in local government top management teams. International Journal of Public Sector Manage-ment, 21(5), 509-524. https://doi.org/10.1108/09513550810885804

Rukuni, T.F., Maziriri, E.T., Dhlamlenze, M., & Benedict, E.E. (2022). Entrepreneurship as a strategy for refu-gees in South Africa. International Entrepreneurship Review, 8(2), 37-50. https://doi.org/10.15678/IER.2022.0802.03

Serrano-Arcos, M.d.M., Sánches-Fernández, R., & Pérez-Mesa J.C. (2021). Analysis of Product-Country Image from Consumer’s Perspective: The Impact of Subjective Knowledge, Perceived Risk and Media Influence. Sustainability, 13(2194). https://doi.org/10.3390/su13042194

Shankarmahesh, M.N. (2006). Consumer ethnocentrism: an integrative of its antecedents. International Mar-keting Review, 23(2), 146-172. https://doi.org/10.1108/02651330610660065

Shimp, T., & Sharma, S. (1987). Consumer Ethnocentrism: Construction and Validation of the CETSCALE. Journal of Marketing Research, 24(3), 280-289. https://doi.org/10.2307/3151638

Siamagka, N.T., & Balabanis, G. (2015). Revisiting Consumer Ethnocentrism: Review, Reconceptualization, and Empirical Testing, Journal of International Marketing, 23(3), 66-86. https://doi.org/10.1509/jim.14.0085

Siemnieniako, D., Kubacki, K., Glinka, E, & Krot, K. (2011). National and regional ethnocentrism: a case study of beer consumers in Poland. British Food Journal. 113(3), 404-411. https://doi.org/10.1108/00070701111116464

Skitka, Linda S. (2005). Patriotism or Nationalism? Post-September 11, 2001, Flag-Display Behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 35(10), 1995-2011. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.2005.tb02206.x

Smits, S. J, & Bowden, B. E. (2015). A perspective on leading and managing organizational change. Economics and Business Review EBR 15(2), 3-21. https://doi.org/10.18559/ebr.2015.2.1

Šmaižienė, I., & Vaitkienė, R. (2014). Consumer Ethnocentrism and Attitudes towards the Domestic and Foreign-Made Dietary Supplements (the Case of Lithuanian Market). Economics and Business. 26, 88-96. https://doi.org/10.7250/eb.2014.025

Spillan, J.E. & Harcar, T. (2013). A Comperativ Study of Patriotism, Protectionism, Social Economic Conserva-tism between Indian and Vietnemese Consumers: The Effect of those Constructs on Buying Inclination, Eurasian Journal of Business and Economics, 2(6), 1-26.

Sroka, W., & Vveinhardt, J. (2020). Nepotism and favouritism: how harmful are these phenomena?. Forum Scientiae Oeconomia, 8(2), 79-91. https://doi.org/10.23762/FSO_VOL8_NO2_5

Staerklé Ch., Sidanius J., Green E.G.T. & Molina L.E. (2010), Ethnic Minority-Majority Asymetry in National Attitudes around the World: A Multieval Analysis. Political Psychology, 31(4), 491-519.

Stahel, R. (2013). Globalisation and the Crisis. Philosophica. Towards a Political Philosophy, 12, 45-56.

Sułkowski, Ł. (2009). Interpretative Approach in Management Sciences. Argumenta Oeconomica 23, 127-49.

Sułkowski Ł., Ignatowski G., & Sułkowska J., (2017). Przedsiębiorczość patriotyczna. Przedsiębiorczość i Zarzą-dzanie, XVIII(12/I), 91-105.

Suryadinata, L. (2000). Nationalism and Globalization. East and West. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.

Szanyi M. (2016). The emergence of patronage state in Central Europe. The case of FDI-related policies in Hun-garyIWE Working Papers 222). Institute for World Economics – Centre for Economic and Regional Stud-ies- Hungarian Academy of Sciences.

Szanyi, M. (2017). Impacts of the Crisis on the FDI-Led Development Model in Hungary: Emergence of Eco-nomic Patriotism or Shift from the Competition State to Patronage? In Havlik, P., & Iwasaki I. (Eds), Eco-nomics of European Crises and Emerging Markets (pp. 149-170). Singapore: Palgrave. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-5233-0_7

Thompson, J., Lees A. & Alvy G. (2000), Social entrepreneurship–a new look at the people and the potential. Management Decision, 38(5), 328-338.

Thorgren, S., & Wincent, J. (2013). Passion and habitual entrepreneurship. International Small Business Jour-nal, 33(2), 216-227. https://doi.org/10.1177/0266242613487085

Toften, K., & Hammervoll, T. (2013). Niche marketing research: status and challenges. Marketing Intelligence and Planning, 31(3), 272-285. https://doi.org/10.1108/02634501311324618

Waldinger, R. & Duquette-Rury, L. (2016). Emigrant Politics, Immigrant Engagement: Homeland Ties and Immigrant Political Identity in the United States. The Russell Sage Foundation, Journal of the Social Sci-ences, 2(3), 42-59. https://doi.org/10.7758/RSF.2016.2.3.03

Watson, J., & Wright, K. (2000). Consumer ethnocentrism and attitudes towards domestic and foreign prod-ucts. Eureopean Journal of Marketing, 34(9/10), 1149-1166. https://doi.org/10.1108/03090560010342520

Westheimer, J. (2006). Politics and Patriotism in Education. Phi Delta Kappan. 87(8), 608-620. https://doi.org/10.1177/003172170608700817

White, J. (2003). Patriotism without Obligation. Journal of Philosophy of Education, 35(1), 141-151. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9752.00215

Wruuck P. (2006), Economic Patriotism. New Game in Industry Policy?, EU Monitor, June 14, 2006, 3-4.


Published : 2022-09-30


Sułkowski Łukasz, IgnatowskiG., StopczyńskiB., & SułkowskaJ. (2022). Perception of patriotic entrepreneurship in Poland and Ukraine. Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, 10(3), 167-190. https://doi.org/10.15678/EBER.2022.100310

Łukasz Sułkowski  lukasz.sulkowski@uj.edu.pl
Institute of Public Affairs, Jagiellonian University  Poland
http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1248-2743

Full Professor at the Faculty of Management and Social Communication of the Jagiellonian University, at Clark University, and the Chair of the Management Department at the University of Social Sciences in Łódź, Poland. A member of the Presidium of the Polish Accreditation Committee since 2012. His research interests include organisation and management, especially critical management studies, the epistemology and methodology of social sciences and the humanities, organisational culture and intercultural management, public management, and the management of family businesses.


Grzegorz Ignatowski 
University of Social Sciences in Łódź  Poland
http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4432-8476
Bartłomiej Stopczyński 
University of Social Sciences in Łódź  Poland
http://orcid.org/0000-0001-8941-7424

Assistant professor at the University of Social Sciences in Łódź, Poland. His research interests include organisation and management, innovation and its use in formulating competitive strategies, nepotism and cronism.


Joanna Sułkowska 
University of Social Sciences in Łódź  Poland
http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4949-3622

Assistant professor at the University of Social Sciences in Łódź, Poland. An employee of Norbert Barlicki Clinical Hospital in Łódź. His scientific interests include issues of management and medical organizations and entrepreneurship.






Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:

  1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a CC BY-ND licence that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
  2. Authors are asked to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.

 Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) only the final version of the article, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access). We advise using any of the following research society portals: