Interdependence between human capital determinants and economic development: K-means regional clustering approach for Czechia and Poland
Objective: The objective of the article is to identify the groups of regions characterised by a similar level of human capital determinants and investigate the relationship between cluster-based human capital determinants and economic development.
Research Design & Methods: We analyse key demographic, health, educational, labour, technological, and cultural determinants of human capital and the level of regional economic development. The research covers the period 2004-2019 for 14 Czech and 16 Polish regions. We apply k-means clustering improved by PCA using data for human capital determinants. To verify significant differences between distinguished clusters, we apply the Kruskal-Wallis test. To assess the interdependence between human capital determinants and regional economic development, we use Spearman rank correlation.
Findings: We distinguish three clusters for Czechia and four clusters for Poland that differ significantly in terms of human capital determinants level. Moreover, we show that both Czech and Polish clusters significantly differ in the median level of GDP per capita. It implies the existence of interdependence between human capital determinants and economic development. We reveal a positive and significant relationship between GDP per capita and life expectancy, higher education rate, economic activity rate, and Internet access, and a negative and significant relationship between the number of library users and the regional economic development. The results are consistent for Czechia and Poland.
Implications & Recommendations: Our study could create a new perspective for discussing similarities and differences in regional human capital development. The results could help decision-makers to identify the regions that need the most to stimulate the human capital determinants to reduce the differences in human capital, and in the long-term perspective, it might contribute to the regional economic development growth.
Contribution & Value Added: Most studies analyse the relationship between human capital and economic growth and development using data for given regions or countries separately. Our contribution is that we first distinguish clusters representing regions with similar human capital levels. Then, based on cluster data, we assess the relationship between the human capital determinants and economic development. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no similar regional research studies conducted to daye, including Czechia and Poland.
human capital determinants; economic development; regional clustering; k-means clustering; principal component analysis – PCA; Czechia; Poland
Abel, J. R., & Deitz, R. (2012). Do colleges and universities increase their region’s human capital? Journal of Economic Geography, 12(3), 667-691. https://doi.org/10.1093/jeg/lbr020
Acemoglu, D., & Johnson, S. (2007). Disease and Development: The Effect of Life Expectancy on Economic Growth. Journal of Political Economy, 115(6), 925-985. https://doi.org/10.1086/529000
Ahmad, N., & French, J. J. (2011). DECOMPOSING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HUMAN CAPITAL AND GDP: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF BANGLADESH. The Journal of Developing Areas, 44(2), 127-142.
Alcidi, C. (2019). Economic Integration and Income Convergence in the EU. Intereconomics, 54(1), 5-11. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10272-019-0783-6
Azam, M. (2019). Relationship between energy, investment, human capital, environment, and economic growth in four BRICS countries. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 26(33), 34388-34400. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-06533-9
Bagirov, A. M. (2008). Modified global -means algorithm for minimum sum-of-squares clustering problems. Pattern Recognition, 41(10), 3192-3199. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.patcog.2008.04.004
Balapanidou, A. (2015). The challenging role of public libraries as providers of lifelong learning opportuni-ties for personal and social skills development. International Journal of Teaching and Education, 3(2), 1-16.
Balcerzak, A. P. (2016). Multiple-criteria Evaluation of Quality of Human Capital in the European Union Countries. Economics & Sociology, 9(2), 11-26. https://doi.org/10.14254/2071-789X.2016/9-2/1
Barro, R. J. (1991). Economic Growth in a Cross Section of Countries. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 106(2), 407. https://doi.org/10.2307/2937943
Barro, R. J., & Sala-i-Martin, X. (1992). Convergence. Journal of Political Economy, 100(2), 223-251. https://doi.org/10.1086/261816
Bassanini, A., & Scarpetta, S. (2002). Does human capital matter for growth in OECD countries? A pooled mean-group approach. Economics Letters, 74(3), 399-405. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0165-1765(01)00569-9
Becker, G. S. (1964). Human Capital: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis with Special Reference to Education, First Edition. NBER.
Bennett, R., Glennerster, H., & Nevison, D. (1995). Regional Rates of Return to Education and Training in Britain. Regional Studies, 29(3), 279-295. https://doi.org/10.1080/00343409512331348963
Bilan, Y., Mishchuk, H., Samoliuk, N., & Grishnova, O. (2019). Ict And Economic Growth: Links And Possibili-ties Of Engaging. Intellectual Economics, 13(1), 93-104.
Biscaia, R., Teixeira, P., Rocha, V., & Cardoso, M. F. (2017). Higher Education, Human Capital, and Regional Dynamics in Southern Europe. In M. Fonseca & U. Fratesi (Eds.), Regional Upgrading in Southern Europe (pp. 323-344). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-49818-8_14
Borozan, D. (2017). Internal Migration, Regional Economic Convergence, and Growth in Croatia. Internation-al Regional Science Review, 40(2), 141-163. https://doi.org/10.1177/0160017615572889
Bradley, S., & Taylor, J. (1996). Human Capital Formation and Local Economic Performance. Regional Studies, 30(1), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1080/00343409612331349438
Bryl, Ł., & Truskolaski, S. (2017). Human Capital Reporting and Its Determinants by Polish and German Pub-licly Listed Companies. Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, 5(2), 195-210. https://doi.org/10.15678/EBER.2017.050211
Bucci, A., & Segre, G. (2011). Culture and human capital in a two-sector endogenous growth model. Research in Economics, 65(4), 279-293. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rie.2010.11.006
Bunea, D. (2012). Provincial Assessment of Convergence and Migration in Spain. Journal of Statistical and Econometric Methods, 1(2), 9-30.
Buzavaite, M., & Korsakiene, R. (2019). Human Capital and the Internationalisation of SMEs: A Systemic Literature Review. Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, 7(3), 125-142. https://doi.org/10.15678/EBER.2019.070307
Cuaresma, J. C., Doppelhofer, G., Huber, F., & Piribauer, P. (2018). Human capital accumulation and long-term income growth projections for European regions. Journal of Regional Science, 58(1), 81-99. https://doi.org/10.1111/jors.12339
Czapiewski, K., & Janc, K. (2019). Education, Human Capital and Knowledge—The Paradigm Shift and Future Scenarios on Polish Rural Areas. In J. Bański (Ed.), Three Decades of Transformation in the East-Central European Countryside (pp. 351-367). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-21237-7_16
Czech Statistical Office. (2021). Public database. https://vdb.czso.cz/vdbvo2/faces/en/index.jsf
Czernich, N., Falck, O., Kretschmer, T., & Woessmann, L. (2011). Broadband Infrastructure and Economic Growth. The Economic Journal, 121(552), 505-532. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0297.2011.02420.x
De la Fuente, A., & Doménech, R. (2006). Human Capital in Growth Regressions: How Much Difference Does Data Quality Make? Journal of the European Economic Association, 4(1), 1-36. https://doi.org/10.1162/jeea.2006.4.1.1
Diebolt, C., & Hippe, R. (2019). The long-run impact of human capital on innovation and economic devel-opment in the regions of Europe. Applied Economics, 51(5), 542-563. https://doi.org/10.1080/00036846.2018.1495820
Ding, C., & He, X. (2004). K-means clustering via principal component analysis. Proceedings of the Twenty-First International Conference on Machine Learning. https://doi.org/10.1145/1015330.1015408
Egert, B., Botev, J., & Turner, D. (2020). The contribution of human capital and its policies to per capita income in Europe and the OECD. European Economic Review, 129, 103560. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.euroecorev.2020.103560
Erosa, A., Koreshkova, T., & Restuccia, D. (2010). How Important Is Human Capital? A Quantitative Theory Assessment of World Income Inequality. Review of Economic Studies, 77(4), 1421-1449. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-937X.2010.00610.x
Etzo, I. (2008). Internal migration and growth in Italy. MPRA Paper 8642. University Library of Munich.
Faggian, A., & McCann, P. (2006). Human capital flows and regional knowledge assets: A simultaneous equa-tion approach. Oxford Economic Papers, 58(3), 475-500. https://doi.org/10.1093/oep/gpl010
Faggian, A., & McCann, P. (2008). Human capital, graduate migration and innovation in British regions. Cam-bridge Journal of Economics, 33(2), 317-333. https://doi.org/10.1093/cje/ben042
Ferguson, S. (2012). Are public libraries developers of social capital? A review of their contribution and at-tempts to demonstrate it. The Australian Library Journal, 61(1), 22-33. https://doi.org/10.1080/00049670.2012.10722299
Folloni, G., & Vittadini, G. (2010). HUMAN CAPITAL MEASUREMENT: A SURVEY. Journal of Economic Surveys, 24(2), 248-279. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6419.2009.00614.x
Freeman, D. G. (2000). Regional tests of Okun’s law. International Advances in Economic Research, 6(3), 557-570. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02294972
Gennaioli, N., La Porta, R., Lopez-de-Silanes, F., & Shleifer, A. (2013a). Human Capital and Regional Devel-opment*. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 128(1), 105-164. https://doi.org/10.1093/qje/qjs050
Gennaioli, N., La Porta, R., Lopez-de-Silanes, F., & Shleifer, A. (2013b). Human Capital and Regional Devel-opment*. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 128(1), 105-164. https://doi.org/10.1093/qje/qjs050
Gruzina, Y., Firsova, I., & Strielkowski, W. (2021). Dynamics of Human Capital Development in Economic Development Cycles. Economies, 9(2), 67. https://doi.org/10.3390/economies9020067
Graczyk-Kucharska, M., & Erickson, G.S. (2020). A person-organization fit model of Generation Z: Preliminary studies. Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Innovation, 16(4), 149-176. https://doi.org/10.7341/20201645
Grzeszczyk, T. A. (2020). Development of human capital in institutions from the Polish financial sector: To-wards new technologies and agile business models. International Entrepreneurship Review, 6(4), 51-63. https://doi.org/10.15678/IER.2020.0604.04
GUS. (2019). Human capital in Poland in the years 2014-2018 (pp. 1-94). Statistics Poland.
Harbison, F., & Myers, C. A. (1964). Education and Employment in the Newly Developing Economies. Com-parative Education Review, 8(1), 5-10. https://doi.org/10.1086/445026
Herbst, M. (2009). Creation and Absorption of Human Capital by the Academic Cities in Poland. Regional and Local Studies, 10(38), 21-38.
Hicks, N., & Streeten, P. (1979). Indicators of development: The search for a basic needs yardstick. World Development, 7(6), 567-580. https://doi.org/10.1016/0305-750X(79)90093-7
Hierro, M., & Maza, A. (2010). Per capita income convergence and internal migration in Spain: Are foreign-born migrants playing an important role?*: Income convergence and internal migration in Spain. Papers in Regional Science, 89(1), 89-107. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1435-5957.2009.00240.x
Honda, K., Notsu, A., & Ichihashi, H. (2010). Fuzzy PCA-Guided Robust $k$-Means Clustering. IEEE Transac-tions on Fuzzy Systems, 18(1), 67-79. https://doi.org/10.1109/TFUZZ.2009.2036603
Imandoust, S., & Bolandraftar, M. (2013). Application of K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) Approach for Predicting Economic Events: Theoretical Background. International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, 3(5), 605-610.
Jabłoński, Ł. (2021). The Evolution of Approaches to Human Capital in Economics. Gospodarka Narodowa, 306(2), 91-120. https://doi.org/10.33119/GN/134630
Jiménez, M., Matus, J. A., & Martínez, M. A. (2014). Economic growth as a function of human capital, inter-net and work. Applied Economics, 46(26), 3202-3210. https://doi.org/10.1080/00036846.2014.925079
Jorgenson, D. W., & Fraumeni, B. M. (1992). Investment in Education and U.S. Economic Growth. The Scandi-navian Journal of Economics, 94, S51. https://doi.org/10.2307/3440246
Kianto, A., Sáenz, J., & Aramburu, N. (2017). Knowledge-based human resource management practices, intel-lectual capital and innovation. Journal of Business Research, 81, 11-20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2017.07.018
Kijek, T., & Matras-Bolibok, A. (2019). The relationship between TFP and innovation performance: evidence from EU regions. Equilibrium. Quarterly Journal of Economics and Economic Policy, 14(4), 695-709. https://doi.org/10.24136/eq.2019.032
Kijek, A., & Matras-Bolibok, A. (2020). Technological convergence across European regions. Equilibrium. Quarterly Journal of Economics and Economic Policy, 15(2), 295-313. https://doi.org/10.24136/eq.2020.014
Kırdar, M. G., & Saracoğlu, D. Ş. (2008). Migration and regional convergence: An empirical investigation for Turkey. Papers in Regional Science, 87(4), 545-566. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1435-5957.2008.00178.x
Knight, M., Loayza, N., & Villanueva, D. (1993). Testing the Neoclassical Theory of Economic Growth: A Panel Data Approach. Staff Papers - International Monetary Fund, 40(3), 512. https://doi.org/10.2307/3867446
Krueger, A. B., & Lindahl, M. (2001). Education for Growth: Why and For Whom? Journal of Economic Litera-ture, 39(4), 1101-1136.
Kruskal, W. H. (1952). A Nonparametric test for the Several Sample Problem. The Annals of Mathematical Statistics, 23(4), 525-540. https://doi.org/10.1214/aoms/1177729332
Kruskal, W. H., & Wallis, W. A. (1952). Use of Ranks in One-Criterion Variance Analysis. Journal of the Ameri-can Statistical Association, 47(260), 583-621. https://doi.org/10.1080/01621459.1952.10483441
Laskowska, I., & Dańska-Borsiak, B. (2017). The Importance Of Human Capital For The Economic Develop-ment Of EU Regions. Comparative Economic Research. Central and Eastern Europe, 19(5), 63-79. https://doi.org/10.1515/cer-2016-0038
Laureys, L. (2014). The Cost of Human Capital Depreciation During Unemployment. SSRN Electronic Journal. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2487796
Lim, S. S., Updike, R. L., Kaldjian, A. S., Barber, R. M., Cowling, K., York, H., Friedman, J., Xu, R., Whisnant, J. L., Taylor, H. J., Leever, A. T., Roman, Y., Bryant, M. F., Dieleman, J., Gakidou, E., & Murray, C. J. L. (2018). Measuring human capital: A systematic analysis of 195 countries and territories, 1990-2016. The Lancet, 392(10154), 1217-1234. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31941-X
Linde, Y., Buzo, A., & Gray, R. (1980). An Algorithm for Vector Quantizer Design. IEEE Transactions on Com-munications, 28(1), 84-95. https://doi.org/10.1109/TCOM.1980.1094577
Liu, G., & Fraumeni, B. (2020). A Brief Introduction to Human Capital Measures. No. 13494, p. w27561. IZA – Institute of Labor Economics. https://doi.org/10.3386/w27561
Lo, P., & Stark, A. J. (2020). Shanghai Library as a human capital developer for a knowledge-driven socio-economic environment. Journal of Librarianship and Information Science, 096100062094856. https://doi.org/10.1177/0961000620948565
Local Data Bank. (2020). Home page. Retrieved from https://bdl.stat.gov.pl/BDL/start on January 25, 2021.
Lorentzen, P., McMillan, J., & Wacziarg, R. (2008). Death and development. Journal of Economic Growth, 13(2), 81-124. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10887-008-9029-3
Lucas, R. E. (1988). On the mechanics of economic development. Journal of Monetary Economics, 22(1), 3-42. https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-3932(88)90168-7
MacQuenn, J. (1967). Some methods for clasification and analysis of multivariate observations. Proceedings of the Fifth Berkeley Symposium on Mathematical Statistics and Probability, 1(14), 281-297.
Mankiw, N. G., Romer, D., & Weil, D. N. (1992). A Contribution to the Empirics of Economic Growth. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 107(2), 407-437. https://doi.org/10.2307/2118477
Manuelli, R. E., & Seshadri, A. (2014). Human Capital and the Wealth of Nations. American Economic Review, 104(9), 2736-2762. https://doi.org/10.1257/aer.104.9.2736
Manyika, J., & Roxburgh, C. (2011). The great transformer: The impact of the Internet on economic growth and prosperity. McKinsey Global Institute, 1(0360-8581).
Martín, M.-A. G., & Herranz, A. Á. (2004). Human capital and economic growth in Spanish regions. Interna-tional Advances in Economic Research, 10(4), 257-264. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02295138
Máté, D., Erdei, E., Zeynvand Lorestani, V., Popp, J., & Oláh, J. (2020). Can internet in schools and technology adoption stimulate productivity in emerging markets? Economics & Sociology, 13(1), 182-196. https://doi.org/10.14254/2071-789X.2020/13-1/12
Mincer, J. (1958). Investment in Human Capital and Personal Income Distribution. Journal of Political Econo-my, 66(4), 281-302. https://doi.org/10.1086/258055
Mincer, J. (1981). Human Capital and Economic Growth. No. w0803, p. w0803. National Bureau of Economic Research. https://doi.org/10.3386/w0803
Mincer, J. (1996). Economic Development, Growth of Human Capital, and the Dynamics of the Wage Struc-ture. Journal of Economic Growth, 1(1), 29-48.
Mishchuk, H., Roshchyk, I. Sułkowska, J. &Vojtovič, S. (2019). Prospects of Assessing the Impact of External Student Migration on Restoring the Country's Intellectual Potential (Case Study of Ukraine). Economics & Sociology, 12(3), 209-219. DOI: 10.14254/2071-789X.2019/12-3/14
Ngo, Q.-T., Thai, T.-K. H., Cao, V.-T., Nguyen, A.-T., Hoang, N.-H., & Nguyen, N.-D. (2020). Individual-level Employment Transitions in Rural Viet Nam. Agris On-Line Papers in Economics and Informatics, 12(01), 73-91. https://doi.org/10.7160/aol.2020.120107
Ogbeifun, L., & Shobande, O. A. (2021). A reevaluation of human capital accumulation and economic growth in OECD. Journal of Public Affairs. https://doi.org/10.1002/pa.2602
Ogundari, K., & Awokuse, T. (2018). Human capital contribution to economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa: Does health status matter more than education? Economic Analysis and Policy, 58, 131-140. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eap.2018.02.001
Oliinyk, O., Bilan, Y., Mishchuk, H., Akimov, O., & Vasa, L. (2021). The Impact of Migration of Highly Skilled Workers on The Country’s Competitiveness and Economic Growth. Montenegrin Journal of Economics, 17(3), 7-19. https://doi.org/10.14254/1800-5845/2021.17-3.1
Pater, R., & Lewandowska, A. (2015). Human capital and innovativeness of the European Union regions. Innovation: The European Journal of Social Science Research, 28(1), 31-51. https://doi.org/10.1080/13511610.2014.962487
Piętak, Ł. (2014). Review Of Theories And Models Of Economic Growth. Comparative Economic Research. Central and Eastern Europe, 17(1), 45-60. https://doi.org/10.2478/cer-2014-0003
Piętak, Ł. (2021). Structural Funds and Convergence in Poland. Hacienda Publica Espanola, 236, 3-37. https://doi.org/10.7866/HPE-RPE.21.1.1
Ritsilä, J., & Ovaskainen, M. (2001). Migration and regional centralization of human capital. Applied Econom-ics, 33(3), 317-325. https://doi.org/10.1080/00036840122485
Romer, P. M. (1986). Increasing Returns and Long-Run Growth. Journal of Political Economy, 94(5), 1002-1037.
Roszko-Wójtowicz, E., Grzelak, M. M., & Laskowska, I. (2019). The impact of research and development activ-ity on the TFP level in manufacturing in Poland. Equilibrium. Quarterly Journal of Economics and Economic Policy, 14(4), 711-737. https://doi.org/10.24136/eq.2019.033.
Sacco, P. L., & Segre, G. (2009). Creativity, Cultural Investment and Local Development: A New Theoretical Framework for Endogenous Growth. In U. Fratesi & L. Senn (Eds.), Growth and Innovation of Competitive Regions (pp. 281-294). Springer Berlin Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-70924-4_13
Sachs, J. (2001). Macroeconomics and health: Investing in health for economic develoopment. World Health Organization.
Shachmurove, Y., & Zilberfarb2, B. (2020). Macroeconomic performance of the Israeli economy in the 21st millennium. Economics and Business Review EBR 20(2), 45-65 DOI: 10.18559/ebr.2020.2.4
Schultz, T. (1961). Investment in Human Capital. The American Economic Review, 51(1), 1-17.
Scott, R. (2011). The Role of Public Libraries in Community Building. Public Library Quarterly, 30(3), 191-227. https://doi.org/10.1080/01616846.2011.599283
Sen, A. (1980). Equality of What? The Tanner Lecture on Human Values, I, 197-220. https://www.ophi.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/Sen-1979_Equality-of-What.pdf
Shafuda, C. P. P., & De, U. K. (2020). Government expenditure on human capital and growth in Namibia: A time series analysis. Journal of Economic Structures, 9(1), 21. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40008-020-00196-3
Simionescu, M., Ciuiu, D., Bilan, Y., & Strielkowski, W. (2016). GDP and Net Migration in Some Eastern and South-Eastern Countries of Europe. A Panel Data and Bayesian Approach. Montenegrin Journal of Eco-nomics, 12(2), 161-175.
Sjaastad, L. A. (1962). The Costs and Returns of Human Migration. Journal of Political Economy, 70(5, Part 2), 80-93. https://doi.org/10.1086/258726
Soylu, Ö. B., Çakmak, İ., & Okur, F. (2018). Economic growth and unemployment issue: Panel data analysis in Eastern European Countries. Journal of International Studies, 11(1), 93-107. https://doi.org/10.14254/2071-8330.2018/11-1/7
Stejskal, J., Hájek, P., & Řehák, T. (2019). The economic value of library services for children: The case of the Czech public libraries. Library & Information Science Research, 41(3), 100963. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lisr.2019.100963
Stewart, F., Ranis, G., & Samman, E. (2018). Advancing human development: Theory and practice (First edi-tion). Oxford University Press.
Tano, S. (2014). Regional clustering of human capital: School grades and migration of university graduates. The Annals of Regional Science, 52(2), 561-581. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00168-014-0599-z
Tibshirani, R., Walther, G., & Hastie, T. (2001). Estimating the number of clusters in a data set via the gap statistic. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series B (Statistical Methodology), 63(2), 411-423. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9868.00293
Tvaronavičienė, M., Mazur, N., Mishchuk, H., & Bilan, Y. (2021). Quality of life of the youth: assessment methodology development and empirical study in human capital management. Economic Research-Ekonomska Istraživanja, 1-18. DOI:10.1080/1331677X.2021.1956361
UNDP (2020). The next frontier: Human development and the Anthropocene. United Nations Development Programme.
UNESCO. (2017). EU cohesion policy (regional policy). Retrieved from https://en.unesco.org/creativity/policy-monitoring-platform/eu-cohesion-policy-regional on June 24, 2021.
United Nations. (2016). Guide on Measuring Human Capital. United Nations Economic Commission for Eu-rope. Retrieved from https://unstats.un.org/unsd/nationalaccount/consultationDocs/HumanCapitalGuide.web.pdf on June 24, 2021.
United Nations. (2021). Human Development Data Center. Retrieved from http://hdr.undp.org/en/data on June 24, 2021.
Vårheim, A. (2009). Public libraries: Places creating social capital? Library Hi Tech, 27(3), 372-381. https://doi.org/10.1108/07378830910988504
Wang, S. L., & Cuervo-Cazurra, A. (2017). Overcoming Human Capital Voids in Underdeveloped Countries: Overcoming Human Capital Voids. Global Strategy Journal, 7(1), 36-57. https://doi.org/10.1002/gsj.1144
Ward, J. H. (1963). Hierarchical Grouping to Optimize an Objective Function. Journal of the American Statisti-cal Association, 58(301), 236-244. https://doi.org/10.1080/01621459.1963.10500845
Weinberger, M. (2014). An overarching health indicator f or the Post-2015 Development Agenda (p. 15).
Wilson, R. A., & Briscoe, G. (2004). The impact of human capital on economic growth: A review. Impact of Education and Training. Third Report on Vocational Training Research in Europe: Background Report. Lux-embourg: EUR-OP, 9-70.
Wojciechowska, M. D. (2021). The role of public libraries in the development of social capital in local com-munities – a theoretical study. Library Management, 42(3), 184-196. https://doi.org/10.1108/LM-10-2020-0139
Wolszczak-Derlacz, J. (2009). The impact of internal and international migration on regional convergence in Poland. In M. Duszczyk & M. Lesińska (Eds.), Współczesne migracje: Dylematy Europy i Polski (pp. 92-117). Ośrodek Badań nad Migracjami Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego.
World Bank. (2010). The Changing Wealth of Nations: Measuring Sustainable Development in the New Millen-nium. The World Bank. https://doi.org/10.1596/978-0-8213-8488-6
World Bank. (2021). Human Capital Project. Retrieved from https://www.worldbank.org/en/publication/human-capital on June 24, 2021.
World Economic Forum. (2017). The global human capital report 2017: Preparing people for the future of work. Retrieved from https://weforum.ent.box.com/s/dari4dktg4jt2g9xo2o5pksjpatvawdb on June 24, 2021.
Xu, Y., & Li, A. (2020). The relationship between innovative human capital and interprovincial economic growth based on panel data model and spatial econometrics. Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics, 365, 112381. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cam.2019.112381
Yusoff, W. F., Jantan, M., & Ibrahim, D. N. (2004). The Interactive Effects Of Human Capital, Structural Capital And Social Capital On Firm Performance. Asian Academy of Management Journal, 9(2), 1-18.
Zikic, J. (2015). Skilled migrants’ career capital as a source of competitive advantage: Implications for strate-gic HRM. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 26(10), 1360-1381. https://doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2014.981199
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a CC BY-ND licence that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are asked to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) only the final version of the article, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access). We advise using any of the following research society portals: