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Entrepreneurial Intentions of Students in Poland in the View of Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour



Objective: The purpose of this study is to empirically verify the Ajzen's in Polish realities, however the TPB was extended of one more variable - attitude towards risk.

Research Design & Methods: We decided to use the survey questionnaire among students. The survey was conducted among seven universities in Kraków. Out of 1100 sent questionnaires, we received 719 fully completed and corrected questionnaires, it means that the return rate is 65.4%. The questionnaire was divided into 14 thematic blocks - their elements explain the entrepreneurial intentions.

Findings: The statistical calculations confirmed that three Ajzen's independent variables such as attitude towards entrepreneurship, subjunctive norms and perceived behavioural control determine entrepreneurial intensions of investigated students. Additionally we found out that the risk attitude is also an determinant in a similar way, as well as the entrepreneurial intentions differ between business and non-business students.

Implications & Recommendations: Shaping entrepreneurial mindset of young people is one of the most important role of contemporary education system, including the tertiary education. Future studies should seek new factors influencing entrepreneurial intentions of students, facts that will be complementary to TPB and EEM models.

Contribution & Value Added: The study extended Ajzen's TPB of risk propensity as a separate variable describing attitude towards entrepreneurship.


entrepreneurial intention, EI, entrepreneurship education, EE, higher education, theory of planned behaviour, TPB


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Author Biography

Krzysztof Wach

full professor at Cracow University of Economics (Poland), full professor at the University of Social Sciences in Łódź (Poland). Professor of social sciences (2020), Habilitation (dr hab.) in economics (2013), PhD in management (2006), MSc in international economics (2001). His research interests include international business, international entrepreneurship, EU studies, entrepreneurship and innovation, family firms. Member of AIB (Academy of International Business) and EIBA (European International Business Academy). Editor-in-Chief of ‘Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review’ (Scopus, ESCI WoS). Associate Editor of various journals incl. ‘European Journal of International Management’ (SCI WoS), ‘Central European Management Journal’ (Scopus, ESCI WoS), ‘Agris on-line Papers in Economics and Informatics’ (Scopus) or ‘European Integration Studies’ (ESCI WoS). Member of the Committee for Economic Sciences of Polish Academy of Sciences (since 2020). Served as expert on entrepreneurship for the European Commission and OECD (2012-2019)

Liwiusz Wojciechowski

PhD Student


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